SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM—

THE NATURAL COMMENTARY ON VEDANTA

(ARTHO 'YAM BRAHMA-SUTRANAM)

 

A STUDY GUIDE BASED UPON THE GOVINDA-BHASYA

OF SRILA BALADEVA VIDYABHUSANA

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

   The word Veda means 'knowledge.' In the modern world, the term 'science' is used to identify the kind of authoritative knowledge upon which human progress is based. To the ancient people of Bharatavarsa, the word Veda had an even more profound import that the word science has for people today. That is because in those days scientific inquiry was not restricted to the world perceived by the physicial senses. And the definition of human progress was not restricted to massive technological exploitation of material nature. In Vedic times, the primary focus of science was the eternal, not the temporary; human progress meant the advancement of spiritual awareness yielding the soul's release from the entrapment of material nature, which is temporary and full of ignorance and suffering.

 

   Vedic knowledge is called apauruseya, meaning that it is not knowledge of human invention. Vedic knowledge appeared at the dawn of the cosmos within the heart of Brahma, the lotus-born demigod of creation from whom all the species of life within the universe descend. Brahma imparted this knowledge in the form of sabda (spiritual sound) to his immediate sons, who are great sages of higher planetary systems like the Satyaloka, Janaloka and Tapaloka. These sages transmitted the Vedic sabda to disciples all over the universe, including wise men of earth in ancient times. Five thousand years ago the great Vedic authority Srila Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa compiled the sabda into Sanskrit scripture (sastra) which collectively is known today as 'the Vedas.'

 

   In the India of old, the study of the Vedas was the special perogative of the brahmanas (the priestly and intellectual class). There were four degrees of education in Vedic knowledge that corresponded to the four asramas of brahminical culture (the brahmacari or student asrama, the grhastha or householder asrama, the vanaprastha or retired asrama and the sannyasa or renounced asrama). The first degree of learning was the memorization of the Vedic Samhita, which consists of thousands of mantras (verses) divided into four sections— Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva—that are chanted by priests in glorification of the Supreme Being during sacrificial rituals. The second degree was the mastery of the Brahmana portion of the Vedas, which teaches rituals for fulfillment of duties to family, society, demigods, sages, other living entities and the Supreme Lord. The third degree was the mastery of the Aranyaka portion, which prepares the retired householder for complete renunciation. The fourth degree was the mastery of the Upanisads, which present the philosophy of the Absolute Truth to persons seeking liberation from birth and death.

 

   The texts studied in the four stages of formal Vedic education are collectively called sruti-sastra, 'scripture that is to be heard' by the brahmanas. But sruti-sastra is not all there is to the Vedic literature. Chandogya Upanisad 7.1.2 declares that the Puranas and Itihasas comprise the fifth division of Vedic study. The Puranas and Itihasas teach the same knowledge as the four Vedas, illustrating it with extensive historical narrations. The fifth Veda is known as smrti-sastra ('scripture that must be remembered'); Srila Vyasadeva compiled it into eighteen Puranas and the Mahabharata. Smrti-sastra study was permitted to non-brahmanas. At Naimasaranya, therefore, Suta Gosvami, a non-brahmana by birth, was requested by the great assembly of brahmanas to recite the Srimad-Bhagavata Maha-purana that his father Romaharsana had learned directly from Vyasa.

 

   Before Vyasadeva's compilation, the Vedas had long been taught in the brahmana-asramas by six schools of Vedic philosophy. Each of these schools had come to be associated with a famous sage who was the author of a sutra (code) expressing the essence of his darsana (standpoint on the ultimate meaning or purpose of the Veda). To dispel the confusion that had arisen among brahmanas because of the incongruities of these standpoints, Vyasa wrote Vedanta-sutra as a final judgement on the arguments of the six schools as well as those of other philosophies. Vedanta-sutra forms the third great body of Vedic literature after the sruti-sastra and smrti-sastra. It is known as the nyaya-sastra, 'scripture of philosophical disputation.'

 

   The sad-darsana (six standpoints) are Nyaya (logic), Vaisesika (atomic theory), Samkhya (analysis of matter and spirit), Yoga (the discipline of self-realization), Karma-mimamsa (science of fruitive work) and Vedanta (science of God realization).

 

   The sad-darsana are termed astika (from asti, or 'it is so'), because they all acknowledge the Veda to be authoritative. The nastika philosophies of the Carvakas, Buddhists and Jains (nasti, 'it is not so'), reject the Vedas. Beginning with Nyaya, each of the sad-darsanas in their own turn presents a more developed and comprehensive explanation of the conclusion of Vedic knowledge. Nyaya sets up the rules of philosophical debate and identifies the basic subjects under discussion: the physical world, the soul, God and liberation. Vaisesika engages the method of Nyaya or logic in a deeper analysis of the predicament of material existence by showing that the visible material forms to which we are all are so attached ultimately break down into invisible atoms. Samkhya develops this analytical process further to help the soul become aloof to matter. Through Yoga, the soul awakens its innate spiritual vision to see itself beyond the body. Karma-mimamsa directs the soul to accept the duties prescribed in the Vedic scriptures. Vedanta focuses on the supreme goal taught in the Upanisads.

 

   Originally, the six darsanas were specialized fields within a harmonious, comprehensive study of the Veda. The purest and most ancient versions of these darsanas are found in Srimad-Bhagavatam, propounded by great mahajanas like Brahma, Narada, Siva, the four Kumaras, Devahuti-putra Kapiladeva and Sukadeva Gosvami. But later and far lesser scholars of the darsanas advanced opposing, contentious points of view. Thus Vedic philosopy came to be misrepresented for selfish ends. For instance, Karma-mimamsa (which by 500 BC had become the foremost philosophy of the brahmana class) was misused by bloodthirsty priests to justify their mass slaughter of animals in Vedic sacrifices. But the unexpected rise of a novel non-Vedic religion challenged the power of Karma-mimamsa. This new religion was Buddhism. When King Asoka instituted the Buddha's doctrine as the state religion of his empire, many brahmanas abandoned Vedic scholarship altogether to learn and teach nastika concepts of ahimsa (nonviolence) and sunyata (voidism). This seriously eroded the influence of the astika schools.

 

   In the seventh century after Christ, Buddhism in its turn was eclipsed by the rise of the teachings of the Vedantist Sankara, who revived the Vedic culture all over India. But Sankara's special formulation of Vedanta was itself influenced by Buddhism and is not truly representative of the original Vedanta-darsana taught by Vyasa.

 

   After Sankara, Vedanta was refined by the schools of great teachers (acaryas) like Ramanuja, Madhva and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Having shed the baggage of Sankara's crypto-Buddhism, Vedanta philosophers soared to heights of dialectical sophistication that has been much appreciated by many Western intellectuals. Vedantic dialectics are represented today in the bhasyas (commentaries) of the acaryas and the tikas (subcommentaries) of their disciples. All possible philosophical positions, including some bearing remarkable resemblance to the ideas of European philosophers, are therein proposed, analyzed and refuted.

 

   Vedanta study is jnana-yoga, the yoga of theoretical knowledge. But from jnana one must come to vijnana, practical realization of the ultimate truth. The theoretical dialectics (sastratha) of Vedanta twist and turn from thesis (purvapaksa) to antithesis (uttarapaksa) to synthesis (siddhanta) like the gnarled branches of a tree. But the ways of philosophical disputation do not themselves add up to the Absolute Truth. The Absolute Truth, being transcendental, is only indirectly framed in the branches of jnana, like the rising full moon may be framed by the branches of a tree. A friend who wishes us to see the moon may first draw our attention to that tree. This may be compared to the indirect or theoretical stage of knowledge. Actually seeing the moon is vijnana.

 

   There is a straightforward path to vijnana. It is explained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to Brahma in Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.31:

 

sri-bhagavan uvaca

jnanam parama-guhyam me

yad vijnana-samanvitam

sarahasyam tad-angam ca

grhana gaditam maya

 

TRANSLATION

   The Personality of Godhead said: Knowledge about Me as described in the scriptures is very confidential, and it has to be realized in conjunction with devotional service. The necessary paraphernalia for that process is being explained by Me. You may take it up carefully.

 

   This verse, which establishes that vijnana is attainable by one who coordinates scriptural study with pure devotional service, is the prelude to the Catuhsloki Bhagavatam, the four original verses of the Srimad-Bhagavatam spoken before creation by the Lord to His servant Brahma. (Bhag. 2.9.33-36) Five thousand years ago, the Catuhsloki Bhagavatam was expanded into 18,000 verses by Srila Vyasadeva as his own commentary on Vedanta-sutra. The Srimad-Bhagavatam, then, is meant for persons who are willing to go beyond mere thinking about the Absolute Truth to the realized stage of practical engagement—body, mind, soul and words—in the ninefold angas (divisions) of devotional service to Krsna. As Sri Prahlada Maharaja states, kriyeta bhagavaty addha tan manye 'dhitam uttamam: 'One who has dedicated his life to the service of Krsna through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person, for he has acquired complete knowledge.' (Bhag. 7.5.24)

 

   The study guide that follows is designed to help the student of Srimad-Bhagavatam to 1) discern the original Bhagavata versions of the six darsanas, 2) learn the Srimad-Bhagavatam's answers to challenges fired from many different philosophical stances, and 3) appreciate the solid Vedic philosophical foundation of Krsna-bhakti. In this guide, verses of the Srimad-Bhagavatam are presented as commentaries on philosophical controversies raised in the Vedanta-sutra. The outline of Vedanta controversies provided by this guide is drawn from the Govinda-bhasya of Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana. The Govinda-bhasya quotes a number Bhagavatam verses deemed to be the elucidations of specific sutras. All verses mentioned therein are incorporated into this study guide. And wherever the Govinda-bhasya provides no Bhagavatam verses to match the Vedanta, other Vaisnava studies of the Srimad-Bhagavatam were consulted. They are: Sri Bhagavata-arka Marici Mala by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Sri Bhakti Ratnavali by Visnu Puri, Vedanta-darsana by Haridasa Sastri and—first and foremost—the computerized BBT Folio of the books of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.

 

  Readers should note that this study guide examines the Srimad-Bhagavatam from a very specific angle of vision—Vedanta philosophy—so as to heighten our appreciation and understanding of certain verses that may have escaped our careful consideration due to their seeming technical or esoteric nature. Thus this study guide is really aimed at augmenting an already developed appreciation for Bhagavata philosophy. It is not conceived of as a general introduction to the Srimad Bhagavatam. Nor is it meant to be an exhaustive study of the Vedanta-sutra either. Many of the finer details of Vedanta philosophy that are dealt with in Govinda-bhasya can find no place in such a work as this, which utilizes Vedanta only as a background reference for a deeper understanding of the Srimad-Bhagavatam.

 

 

SRILA PRABHUPADA ON THE SRIMAD-BHAGAVATAM

AS THE NATURAL COMMENTARY ON VEDANTA-SUTRA

 

From Teachings of Lord Kapila, Chapter 4: 'Srimad-Bhagavatam is a commentary on Vedanta-sutra. Vedanta-sutra explains that the Supreme is the source of everything, and the nature of that source is explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.1.1): janmady asya yato 'nvayad itaratas carthesv abhijnah svarat. That source is abhijna, cognizant. Matter is not cognizant; therefore the theory of modern science that life comes from matter is incorrect. The identity from whom everything emanates is abhijna, cognizant, which means He can understand. The Bhagavatam (1.1.1) also states, tene brahma hrdaya adi-kavaye: Krsna instructed Lord Brahma in Vedic knowledge. Unless the ultimate source is a living entity, how can He impart knowledge? Srimad-Bhagavatam was compiled by Vyasadeva, who also compiled the Vedanta-sutra. Generally the Mayavadis emphasize the commentary made on the Vedanta-sutra by Sankaracarya, the Sariraka-bhasya, but that is not the original commentary on Vedanta-sutra. The original commentary is given by the author himself, Vyasadeva, in the form of Srimad-Bhagavatam. To understand the actual meaning of the Vedanta-sutra, we must refer to the commentary made by the author himself. As stated by Sri Krsna Himself in Bhagavad-gita (13.5):

 

rsibhir bahudha gitam

chandobhir vividhaih prthak

brahma-sutra-padais caiva

hetumadbhir viniscitaih

 

"The knowledge of the field of activities and of the knower of activities is described by various sages in various Vedic writings—especially in the Vedanta-sutra—and is presented with all reasoning as to cause and effect."

 

Transcendental knowledge is therefore very logical. According to the Vedic system, the acarya must understand Vedanta-sutra (also called Brahma-sutra) before he can be accepted as an acarya. Both the Mayavada-sampradaya and the Vaisnava-samprada ya have explained the Vedanta-sutra. Without understanding Vedanta-sutra, one cannot understand Brahman.'

 

From Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, Chapter 7, Text 72, purport: 'Knowledge of the unlimited is actual brahmajnana, or knowledge of the Supreme. Those who are addicted to fruitive activities and speculative knowledge cannot understand the value of the holy name of the Lord, Krsna, who is always completely pure, eternally liberated and full of spiritual bliss. One who has taken shelter of the holy name of the Lord, which is identical with the Lord, does not have to study Vedanta philosophy, for he has already completed all such study.

 

One who is unfit to chant the holy name of Krsna but thinks that the holy name is different from Krsna and thus takes shelter of Vedanta study in order to understand Him must be considered a number one fool, as confirmed by Caitanya Mahaprabhu by His personal behavior, and philosophical speculators who want to make Vedanta philosophy an academic career are also considered to be within the material energy. A person who always chants the holy name of the Lord, however, is already beyond the ocean of nescience, and thus even a person born in a low family who engages in chanting the holy name of the Lord is considered to be beyond the study of Vedanta philosophy. In this connection the Srimad-Bhavatam states:

 

aho bata svapaco'to gariyn

yajjih vnre vartate nma tubhyam

tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya

brahman ucur nama grnanti ye te

 

"If a person born in a family of dog-eaters takes to the chanting of the holy name of Krsna, it is to be understood that in his previous life he must have executed all kinds of austerities and penances and performed all the Vedic yajnas." (SB. 3.33.7) Another quotation states:

 

rg-vedo 'tha yajur-vedah sma-vedo 'py atharvanah

adhitas tena yenoktam harir ity aksara-dvayam

 

"A person who chants the two syllables Ha-ri has already studied the four Vedas—Sama, Rk, Yajuh and Atharva."

 

Taking advantage of these verses, there are some sahajiys who, taking everything very cheaply, consider themselves elevated Vaisnavas but do not care even to touch the Vednta-sutras or Vedanta philosophy. A real Vaisnava should, however, study Vedanta philosophy, but if after studying Vedanta one does not adopt the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, he is no better than a Mayavadi. Therefore, one should not be a Mayavadi, yet one should not be unaware of the subject matter of Vedanta philosophy. Indeed, Caitanya Mahaprabhu exhibited His knowledge of Vedanta in His discourses with Prakasananda Sarasvati. Thus it is to be understood that a Vaisnava should be completely conversant with Vedanta philosophy, yet he should not think that studying Vedanta is all in all and therefore be unattached to the chanting of the holy name. A devotee must know the importance of simultaneously understanding Vedanta philosophy and chanting the holy names. If by studying Vedanta one becomes an impersonalist, he has not been able to understand Vedanta. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (Bg. 15.15). Vedanta means "the end of knowledge." The ultimate end of knowledge is knowledge of Krsna, who is identical with His holy name. Cheap Vaisnavas (sahajiyas) do not care to study the Vedanta philosophy as commented upon by the four acaryas. In the Gaudiya-sampradaya there is a Vedanta commentary called the Govinda-bhasya, but the sahajiyas consider such commentaries to be untouchable philosophical speculation, and they consider the acaryas to be mixed devotees. Thus they clear their way to hell.'

 

From Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, Chapter 7, Text 102, Purport: 'The Mayavadi sannyasis, appreciating Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, inquired from Him why He did not discuss Vedanta philosophy. Actually, however, the entire system of Vaisnava activities is based on Vedanta philosophy. Vaisnavas do not neglect Vedanta, but they do not care to understand Vedanta on the basis of the Sariraka-bhasya commentary. Therefore, to clarify the situation, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, with the permission of the Mayavadi sannyasis, wanted to speak regarding Vedanta philosophy. The Vaisnavas are by far the greatest philosophers in the world, and the greatest among them was Srila Jiva Gosvami Prabhu, whose philosophy was again presented less than four hundred years later by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Maharaja. Therefore one must know very well that Vaisnava philosophers are not sentimentalists or cheap devotees like the sahajiyas. All the Vaisnava acaryas were vastly learned scholars who understood Vedanta philosophy fully, for unless one knows Vedanta philosophy he cannot be an acarya. To be accepted as an acarya among Indian transcendentalists who follow the Vedic principles, one must become a vastly learned scholar in Vedanta philosophy, either by studying it or hearing it.

 

Bhakti develops in pursuance of Vedanta philosophy. This is stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.12):

 

tac chraddadhana munayo

jnana-vairagya-yuktaya

pasyanty atmani catmanam

bhaktya sruta-grhitaya

 

The words bhaktyasruta-grhitaya in this verse are very important, for they indicate that bhakti must be based upon the philosophy of the Upanisads and Vedanta-sutra. Srila Rupa Gosvami said:

 

sruti-smrti-puranadi-

pancaratra-vidhim vina

aikantikiharer bhaktir

utpatayaiva kalpate

 

"Devotional service performed without reference to the Vedas, puranas, pancaratras, etc., must be considered sentimentalism, and it causes nothing but disturbance to society." There are different grades of

Vaisnavas (kanistha-adhikari madhyama- adhi kari uttama-adhikari), but to be a madhyama-adhikari preacher one must be a learned scholar in Vedanta-sutra and other Vedic literature because when bhakti-yoga develops on the basis of Vedanta philosophy it is factual and steady. In this connection we may quote the translation and purport of the verse mentioned above (SB. 1.2.12):

 

TRANSLATION

That Absolute Truth is realized by the seriously inquisitive student or sage who is well equipped with knowledge and who has become detached by rendering devotional service and hearing the Vedanta-sruti.'

 

From a lecture by Srila Prabhupada, given on January 11, 1967: 'So far Vedanta-sutra is concerned, Bhagavata is Vedanta-sutra itself. Bhagavata is the natural commentary on the Vedanta-sutra. Therefore one who has sufficient knowledge in Bhagavata, he has automatically sufficient knowledge in Vedanta-sutra.'

 

 

z

All Glories to Sri Sri Guru and Gauranga!

 

Studying Srimad Bhagavatam From Vedanta-sutra

by Suhotra Swami

          

 

CHAPTER ONE

[Vedanta-sutra Reference: First Adhyaya, Pada One]

                                  

 

Vedanta-sutra verses are parenthetically indicated by number (adhyaya, pada, sutra). They are followed by Srimad Bhagavatam verses—Sanskrit, word meanings and translation—that explain the sutras.               

                                  

Each sutra addresses philosophical subjects that have been summarized in capital letters. The summaries are derived from Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana's Govinda Bhasya.     

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter One •

 

1. Inquiry into Brahman.

2. The origin of everything.

3. Brahman is to be understood by the revelation of the Vedic scriptures.

4. This is confirmed by the Vedic scriptures.

5. Brahman is knowable.

6. Brahman is full of bliss.

7. The nature of the Person within.

8. The word 'Akasa' refers to Brahman.

9. The word 'Prana' refers to Brahman.

10. The word 'Jyotis' refers to Brahman.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: Inquiry Into Brahman.

 

What is the goal of human life?

(Vs. 1.1.1.)

 

1.2.7-11

vasudeve bhagavati

bhakti-yogah prayojitah

janayaty asu vairagyam

jnanam ca yad ahaitukam

 

By rendering devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, one immediately acquires causeless knowledge and detachment from the world.

 

1.2.8

dharmah svanusthitah pumsam

visvaksena-kathasu yah

notpadayed yadi ratim

srama eva hi kevalam

   The occupational activities a man performs according to his own position are only so much useless labor if they do not provoke attraction for the message of the Personality of Godhead.

 

1.2.9

dharmasya hy apavargyasya

nartho 'rthayopakalpate

narthasya dharmaikantasya

kamo labhaya hi smrtah

 

All occupational engagements are certainly meant for ultimate liberation. They should never be performed for material gain. Furthermore, according to sages, one who is engaged in the ultimate occupational service should never use material gain to cultivate sense gratification.

 

1.2.10

kamasya nendriya-pritir

labho jiveta yavata

jivasya tattva jijnasa

nartho yas ceha karmabhih

 

Life's desires should never be directed toward sense gratification. One should desire only a healthy life, or self-

preservation, since a human being is meant for inquiry about the Absolute Truth. Nothing else should be the goal of one's works.

 

1.2.11

vadanti tat tattva-vidas

tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

brahmeti paramatmeti

bhagavan iti sabdyate

 

Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan.

 

1.1.1

om namo bhagavate vasudevaya

janmady asya yato 'nvayad itaratas carthesv abhijnah svarat

tene brahma hrda ya adi-kavaye muhyanti yat surayah

tejo-vari-mrdam yatha vinimayo yatra tri-sargo 'mrsa

dhamna svena sada nirasta-kuhakam satyam param dhimahi

 

O my Lord, Sri Krsna, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Sri Krsna because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmaji, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Sri Krsna, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.

 

1.3.39

atheha dhanya bhagavanta ittham

yad vasudeve 'khila-loka-nathe

kurvanti sarvatmakam atma-bhavam

na yatra bhuyah parivarta ugrah

 

Only by making such inquiries in this world can one be successful and perfectly cognizant, for such inquiries invoke transcendental ecstatic love unto the Personality of Godhead, who is the proprietor of all the universes, and guarantee cent-per cent immunity from the dreadful repetition of birth and death.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: The Origin Of Everything.

 

What is the absolute truth, the origin of everything?

(Vs. 1.1.2)

 

1.1.1

om namo bhagavate vasudevaya

janmady asya yato 'nvayad itaratas carthesv abhijnah svarat

tene brahma hrda ya adi-kavaye muhyanti yat surayah

tejo-vari-mrdam yatha vinimayo yatra tri-sargo 'mrsa

dhamna svena sada nirasta-kuhakam satyam param dhimahi

 

O my Lord, Sri Krsna, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Sri Krsna because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmaji, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Sri Krsna, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.

 

5.12.11

jnanam visuddham paramartham ekam

anantaram tv abahir brahma satyam

pratyak prasantam bhagavac-chabda-samjnam

yad vasudevam kavayo vadanti

 

What, then, is the ultimate truth? The answer is that nondual knowledge is the ultimate truth. It is devoid of the contamination of material qualities. It gives us liberation. It is the one without a second, all-pervading and beyond imagination. The first realization of that knowledge is Brahman. Then Paramatma, the Supersoul, is realized by the yogis who try to see Him without grievance. This is the second stage of realization. Finally, full realization of the same supreme knowledge is realized in the Supreme Person. All learned scholars describe the Supreme Person as Vasudeva, the cause of Brahman, Paramatma and others.

 

 

Adhikarana 3:

Brahman Is To Be Understood

By The Revelation Of The Vedic Scriptures.

 

Knowledge of the absolute truth is found only in sastra.

(Vs. 1.1.3)

 


10.16.44

namah pramana-mulaya

kavaye sastra-yonaye

pravrttaya nivrttaya

nigamaya namo namah

 

We offer our obeisances again and again to You, who are the basis of all authoritative evidence, who are the author and ultimate source of the revealed scriptures, and who have manifested Yourself in those Vedic literatures encouraging sense gratification as well as in those encouraging renunciation of the material world.

 

 

Adhikarana 4:

This Is Confirmed By The Vedic Scriptures.

 

The absolute truth is the only subject of sastra.

(Vs. 1.1.4)

 

1.1.1 (see above)

 

11.11.18,19

sabdha-brahmani nisnato

na nisnayat pare yadi

sramas tasya srama-phalo

hy adhenum iva raksatah

 

If through meticulous study one becomes expert in reading Vedic literature but makes no endeavor to fix one's mind on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then one's endeavor is certainly like that of a man who works very hard to take care of a cow that gives no milk. In other words, the fruit of one's laborious study of Vedic knowledge will simply be the labor itself. There will be no other tangible result.

 

gam dugdha-doham asatim ca bharyam

deham paradhinam asat-prajam ca

vittam tv atirthi-krtam anga vacam

hinam maya raksati dukha-duhkihi

 

My dear Uddhava, that man is certainly most miserable who takes care of a cow that gives no milk, an unchaste wife, a body totally dependent on others, useless children or wealth not utilized for the right purpose. Similarly, one who studies Vedic knowledge devoid of My glories is also most miserable.

 

 

Adhikarana 5: Brahman Is Knowable.                 

 

The Absolute Truth Is Knowable And Can Be Described In Words.

(Vs. 1.1.5)

 

1.1.1. (see above)

 

2.9.31

sri-bhagavan uvaca

jnanam parama-guhyam me

yad vijnana-samanvitam

sarahasyam tad-angam ca

grhana gaditam maya

 

The Personality of Godhead said: Knowledge about Me as described in the scriptures is very confidential, and it has to be realized in conjunction with devotional service. The necessary paraphernalia for that process is being explained by Me. You may take it up carefully.

 

The absolute truth, the self of all, is not saguna brahman (prakrti in the mode of goodness).

(Vs. 1.1.6)

 

1.2.11

vadanti tat tattva-vidas

tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

brahmeti paramatmeti

bhagavan iti sabdyate

 

Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan.

 

4.3.23

sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam

yad iyate tatra puman apavrtah

sattve ca tasmin bhagavan vasudevo

hy adhoksajo me namasa vidhiyate

 

I am always engaged in offering obeisances to Lord Vasudeva in pure Krna consciousness. Krsna consciousness is always pure consciousness, in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Vasudeva, is revealed without any covering.

 

The absolute truth is nirguna brahman because his worship gives liberation.

(Vs. 1.1.7)

 

10.88.5

harir hi nirgunah saksat

purusah prakrteh parah

sa sarva-drg upadrasta

tam bhajan nirguno bhavet

 

Lord Hari, however, has no connection with the material modes. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the all-seeing eternal witness, who is transcendental to material nature. One who worships Him becomes similarly free from the material modes.

 

Nirguna brahman means lord visnu, the supreme controller of the three modes of material nature; in the vedas there is no higher worship than worship of visnu.

(Vs. 1.1.8)

 

1.2.23

sattvam rajas tama iti prakrter gunas tair

yuktah parah purusa eka ihasya dhatte

sthity-adaye hari-virinci-hareti samjnah

sreyamsi tatra khalu sattva-tanor nrnam syuh

 


The transcendental Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness and ignorance, and just for the material world's creation, maintenance and destruction He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Of these three, all human beings can derive ultimate benefit from Visnu, the form of the quality of goodness.

 

4.9.15

tvam nitya-mukta-parisuddha-vibuddha atma

kuta-stha adi-puruso bhagavams try-adhisah

yad-buddhy-avasthitim akhanditaya sva-drstya

drasta sthitav adhimakho vyatirikta asse

 

My Lord, by Your unbroken transcendental glance You are the supreme witness of all stages of intellectual activities. You are eternally liberated, Your existence is situated in pure goodness, and You are existent in the Supersoul without change. You are the original Personality of Godhead, full with six opulences, and You are eternally the master of the three modes of material nature. Thus, You are always different from the ordinary living entities. As Lord Visnu, You maintain all the affairs of the entire universe, and yet You stand aloof and are the enjoyer of the results of all sacrifices.

 

2.6.32

srjami tan-niyukto 'ham

haro harati tad-vasah

vinam purusa-rupena

paripati tri-sakti-dhrk

 

By His will, I create, Lord Siva destroys, and He Himself, in His eternal form as the Personality of Godhead, maintains everything. He is the powerful controller of these three energies.

 

10.3.24

sri-devaky uvaca

rupam yat tat prahur avyaktam adyam

brahma jyotir nirgunam nirvikaram

satta-matram nirvisesam niriham

sa tvam saksad visnur adhyatma-dipah

 

Sri Devaki said: My dear Lord, there are different Vedas, some of which describe You as unperceivable through words and the mind. Yet You are the origin of the entire cosmic manifestation. You are Brahman, the greatest of everything, full of effulgence like the sun. You have no material cause, You are free from change and deviation, and You have no material desires. Thus the Vedas say that You are the substance. Therefore, my Lord, You are directly the origin of all Vedic statements, and by understanding You, one gradually understands everything. You are different from the light of Brahman and Paramatma, yet You are not different from them. Everything emanates from You. Indeed, You are the cause of all causes, Lord Visnu, the light of all transcendental knowledge.

 

Lord visnu is the complete whole.

(Vs. 1.1.9)

 

1.2.30-34

sa evedam sasarjagre

bhagavan atma-mayaya

sad-asad-rupaya casau

gunamayaguno vibhuh

 

In the beginning of the material creation, that Absolute Personality of Godhead (Vasudeva), in His transcendental position, created the energies of cause and effect by His own internal energy.

 

taya vilasitesv esu

gunesu gunavan iva

antah-pravista abhati

vijnanena vijrmbhitah

 

After creating the material substance, the Lord (Vasudeva) expands Himself and enters into it. And although He is within the material modes of nature and appears to be; one of the created beings, He is always fully enlightened in His transcendental position.

 

yatha hy avahito vahnir

darusv ekah sva-yonisu

naneva bhati visvatma

bhutesu ca tatha puman

 

The Lord, as Supersoul, pervades all things, just as fire permeates wood, and so He appears to be of many varieties, though He is the absolute one without a second.

 

asau gunamayair bhavair

bhuta-suksmendriyatmabhih

sva-nirmitesu nirvisto

bhunkte bhutesu tad-gunan

 

The Supersoul enters into the bodies of the created beings who are influenced by the modes of material nature and causes them to enjoy the effects of these modes by the subtle mind.

 

bhavayaty esa sattvena

lohan vai loka-bhavanah

lilavataranurato

deva-tiryan-naradisu

 

Thus the Lord of the universes maintains all planets inhabited by demigods, men and lower animals. Assuming the roles of incarnations, He performs pastimes to reclaim those in the mode of pure goodness.

 

The vedas describe only one absolute truth—vasudeva.

(Vs. 1.1.10)

 

1.2.28-29

vasudeva-para veda

vasudeva-para makhah

vasudeva-para yoga

vasudeva-parah kriyah

 

vasudeva-param jnanam

vasudeva-param tapah

vasudeva-paro dharmo

vasudeva-para gatih

 

In the revealed scriptures, the ultimate object of knowledge is Sri Krsna, the Personality of Godhead. The purpose of performing sacrifice is to please Him. Yoga is for realizing Him. All fruitive activities are ultimately rewarded by Him only. He is supreme knowledge, and all severe austerities are performed to know Him. Religion [dharma] is rendering loving service unto Him. He is the supreme goal of life.

 


The supreme lord is devoid of material qualities.

(Vs. 1.1.11)

 

7.1.6

nirguno 'pi hy ajo 'vyakto

bhagavan prakrteh parah

sva-maya-gunam avisya

badhya-badhakatam gatah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, is always transcendental to material qualities, and therefore He is called nirguna, or without qualities. Because He is unborn, He does not have a material body to be subjected to attachment and hatred. Although the Lord is always above material existence, through His spiritual potency He appeared and acted like an ordinary human being, accepting duties and obligations, apparently like a conditioned soul.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: Brahman Is Full Of Bliss.

 

Of the five 'kosas' beginning with annamaya, the supreme lord is the ultimate one, anandamaya.

(Vs. 1.1.12)

 

10.87.17

drtaya iva svasanty asu-bhrto yadi te nuvidha

mahad-aham-adayo 'ndam asrjan yad-anugrahatah

purusa-vidho 'nvayo 'tra caramo 'nna-mayadisu yah

sad-asatah param tvam atha yad esv avasesam rtam

 

Only if they become Your faithful followers are those who breathe actually alive; otherwise their breathing is like that of a bellows. It is by Your mercy alone that the elements, beginning with the mahat-tattva and false ego, created the egg of this universe. Among the manifestations known as anna-maya and so forth, You are the ultimate one, entering within the material coverings along with the living entity and assuming the same forms as those he takes. Distinct from the gross and subtle material manifestations, You are the reality underlying them all.

 

2.7.47

sasvat prasantam abhayam pratibodha-matram

suddham samam sad-asatah paramatma-tattvam

sabdo na yatra puru-karakavan kriyartho

maya paraity abhimukhe ca vilajjamana

tad vai padam bhagavatah paramasya pumso

brahmeti yad vidur ajasra-sukham visokam

 

What is realized as the Absolute Brahman is full of unlimited bliss without grief. That is certainly the ultimate phase of the supreme enjoyer, the Personality of Godhead. He is eternally void of all disturbances and fearless. He is complete consciousness as opposed to matter. Uncontaminated and without distinctions, He is the principle primeval cause of all causes and effects, in whom there is no sacrifice for fruitive activities and in whom the illusory energy does not stand.

 

Anandamaya means 'the reservoir of all pleasure.'

(Vs. 1.1.13)

 

8.6.8

sri-brahmovaca

ajata janma-sthiti-samyamaya-

gunaya nirvana-sukharnavaya

anor animne 'panganya-dhamne

mahanubhavaya namo namas te

 

Lord Brahma said: Although You are never born, Your appearance and disappearance as an incarnation never cease. You are always free from the material qualities, and You are the shelter of transcendental bliss resembling an ocean. Eternally existing in Your transcendental form, You are the supreme subtle of the most extremely subtle. We therefore offer our respectful obeisances unto You, the Supreme, whose existence is inconceivable.

 

The supreme lord, the reservoir of pleasure, is the source of bliss for the individual spirit souls (jiva-atma). He is therefore not a jiva himself.

(Vs. 1.1.14)

 

10.14.37

prapancam nisprapanco 'pi

vidambayasi bhu-tale

prapanna-janatananda

sandoham prathitum prabho

 

My dear master, although You have nothing to do with material existence, You come to this earth and imitate material life just to expand the varieties of ecstatic enjoyment for Your surrendered devotees.

 

11.26.1

sri bhagavan uvaca

mal-laksanam imam kayam

labdhva mad-dharma asthitah

anandam paramatmanam

atma-stham samupaiti mam

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Having achieved this human form of life, which affords one the opportunity to realize Me, and being situated in My devotional service, one can achieve Me, the reservoir of all pleasure and the Supreme Soul of all existence, residing within the heart of every living being.

 

The supreme lord is satya (eternal) and ananta (endless).

(Vs. 1.1.15)

 

10.28.15

satyam jnanam anantam yad

brahma-jyotih sanatanam

yad dhi pasyanti munayo

gunapaye samahitah

 

Lord Krsna revealed the indestructible spiritual effulgence, which is unlimited, conscious and eternal. Sages see that spiritual existence in trance, when their consciousness is free of the modes of material nature.

 

The individual soul (jiva) is not the parabrahman described above as satyam, jnanam, anantam. Yet the pure soul is glorious, for he brings the supreme lord under his control.

(Vs. 1.1.16)

 

9.4.66

mayi nirbaddha-hrdayah

sadhavah sama-darsanah

vase kurvanti mam bhaktya

sat-striyah sat-patim yatha

 

As chaste women bring their gentle husbands under control by service, the pure devotees, who are equal to everyone and completely attached to Me in the core of the heart, bring Me under their full control.

 

The individual soul is different from the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.1.17)

 

3.28.41

bhutendriyantah-ka ranat

pradhanaj jiva-samjnitat

atma tatha prthag dmsta

bhagavan brahma-samjnitah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as Parambrahma, is the seer. He is different from the jiva soul, or individual living entity, who is combined with the senses, the five elements and consciousness.

 

11.11.5, 6

atha baddhasya muktasya

vailaksanyam vadami te

viruddha-dharminos tata

sthitayor eka-dharmini

 

Thus, my dear Uddhava, in the same material body we find opposing characteristics, such as great happiness and misery. That is because both the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternally liberated, as well as the conditioned soul are within the body. I shall now speak to you about their different characteristics.

 

suparnav etau sadrsau sakhayau

yadrcchayaitau krta-nidau ca vrkse

ekas tayoh khadati pippalannam

anyo niranno 'pi balena bhuyan

 

By chance, two birds have made a nest together in the same tree. The two birds are friends and are of a simialr nature. One of them, however, is eating the fruits of the tree, whereas the other, who does not eat the fruits, is in a superior position due to His potency.

 

The supreme lord, being superconscious, is full of superior desires; by his desire, he created the material world. Hence, he is not a creation of the material mode of goodness.

(Vs. 1.1.18)

 

1.2.30-31

sa evedam sasarjagre

bhagavan atma-mayaya

sad-asad-rupaya casau

gunamayaguno vibhuh

 

In the beginning of the material creation, that Absolute Personality of Godhead [Vasudeva], in His transcendental position, created the energies of cause and effect by His own internal energy.

 

taya vilasitesv esu

gunesu gunavan iva

antah-pravista abhati

vijnanena vijrmbhitah

 

After creating the material substance, the Lord [Vasudeva] expands Himself and enters into it. And although He is within the material modes of nature and appears to be one of the created beings, He is always fully enlightened in His transcendental position.

 

The supreme lord liberates the jiva from matter; how, then, can he be a product of the material mode of goodness?

(Vs. 1.1.19)

 

10.87.35

bhuvi puru-punya-tirtha-sadanany rsayo vimadas

ta uta bhavat-padambuja-hrdo 'gha-bhid-anghri-jalah

dadhati sakrn manas tvayi ya atmani nitya-sukhe

na punar upasate purusa-sara-haravasathan

 

Sages free from false pride live on this earth by frequenting the sacred pilgrimage sites and those places where the Supreme Lord displayed His pastimes. Because such devotees keep Your lotus feet within their hearts, the water that washed their feet destroys all sins. Anyone who even one turns his mind toward You, the ever-blissful Soul of all existence, no longer dedicates himself to serving family life at home, which simply robs a man of his good qualities.

 

 

Adhikarana 7: The Nature Of The Person Within.

 

The supreme lord, the source of all light, is described in the vedas as the lord of the sun and the eye. The vedas do not describe the jiva as such.

(Vs. 1.1.20-21)

 

5.7.13, 14

 

ittham dhrta-bhagavad-vrata aineyajina-vasasanusavanabhisekardra-kapisa-kutila jata-kalapena ca virocamanah suryarca bhagavantam hiranmayam purusam ujjihane surya-mandale 'bhyupatisthann etad u hovaca.

 

Maharaja Bharata appeared very beautiful. He had a wealth of curly hair on his head, which was wet from bathing three times daily. He dressed in a deerskin. He worshiped Lord Narayana, whose body was composed of golden effulgence and who resided within the sun. Maharaja Bharata worshiped Lord Narayana by chanting the hymns given in the Rg Veda, and he recited the following verse as the sun rose.

 

paro-rajah savitur jata-vedo

devasya bhargo manasedam jajana

suretasadah punar avisya caste

hamsam grdhranam nrsad-ringiram imah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated in pure goodness. He illuminates the entire universe and bestows all benedictions upon His devotees. The Lord has created this universe from His own spiritual potency. According to His desire, the Lord entered this universe as the Supersoul, and by virtue of His different potencies, He is maintaining all living entities desiring material enjoyment. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Lord, who is the giver of intelligence.

 

 


Adhikarana 8: The Word 'Akasa' Refers To Brahman.         

 

'Akasa' means the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.1.22)

 

10.40.1-2

sri-akrura uvaca

nato 'smy aham tvakhila-hetu-hetum

narayanam purusam adyam avyayam

yan-nabhi-jatad aravinda-kosad

brahmavirasid yata esa lokah

 

Sri Akrura said: I bow down to You, the cause of all causes, the original and inexhaustible Supreme Person, Narayana. From the whorl of the lotus born from Your navel, Brahma appeared, and by his agency this universe has come into being.

 

bhus toyam agnih pavanam kham adir

mahan ajadir mana indriyani

sarvendriyartha vibudhas ca sarve

ye hetavas te jagato 'nga-bhutah

 

Earth; water; fire; air; ether and its source, false ego; the mahat-tattva; the total material nature and her source, the Supreme Lord's purusa expansion; the mind; the senses; the sense objects; and the senses' presiding deities—all these causes of the cosmic manifestation are born from Your transcendental body.

 

 

Adhikarana 9: The Word 'Prana' Refers To Brahman.         

 

'Prana' means the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.1.23)

 

8.5.37

pranad abhud yasya caracaranam

pranah saho balam ojas ca vayuh

anvasma samrajam ivanuga vayam

prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih

 

All living entities, moving and nonmoving, receive their vital force, their bodily strength and their very lives from the air. All of us follow the air for our vital force, exactly as servants follow an emperor. The vital force of air is generated from the original vital force of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. May that Supreme Lord be pleased with us.

 

 

Adhikarana 10: The Word 'Jyotis' Refers To Brahman.

 

'Jyoti' is the supreme lord who is the light glorified in the upanisads.

(Vs. 1.1.24)

 

8.5.36

yac-caksur asit taranir deva-yanam

trayimayo brahmana esa dhisnyam

dvaram ca mukter amrtam ca mrtyuh

prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih

 

The sun-god marks the path of liberation, which is called arciradi-vartma. He is the chief source for understanding of the Vedas, he is the abode where the Absolute Truth can be worshiped, He is the gateway to liberation, and he is the source of eternal life as well as the cause of death. The sun-god is the eye of the Lord. May that Supreme Lord, who is supremely opulent, be pleased with us.

 

Jyoti is not the meter of the gayatri mantra, which is meant for meditating upon the lord who is the source of all light.

(Vs. 1.1.25)

 

3.14.32

athopasprsya salilam

pranan ayamya vag-yatah

dhyayan jajapa virajam

brahma jyotih sanatanam

 

Thereafter the brahmana took his bath in the water and controlled his speech by practicing trance, meditating on the eternal effulgence and chanting the holy Gayatri hymns within his mouth.

 

Gayatri incarnates from the skin of brahma, who is the guna-avatara of the supreme lord; hence, gayatri is an incarnation of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.1.26)

 

3.12.44-45

anviksiki trayi varta

danda-nitis tathaiva ca

evam vyahrtayas casan

pranavo hy asya dahratah

 

The science of logical argument, the Vedic goals of life, and also law and order, moral codes, and the celebrated hymns bhuh, bhuvah and svah all became manifested from the mouths of Brahma, and the pranava omkara was manifested from his heart.

 

tasyosnig asil lomabhyo

gayatri ca tvaco vibhoh

tristum mamsat snuto 'nustub

jagaty asthnah prajapateh

 

Thereafter the art of literary expression, usnik, was generated from the hairs on the body of the almighty Prajapati. The principal Vedic hymn, gayatri, was generated from the skin, tristup from the flesh, anustup from the veins, and jagati from the bones of the lord of the living entities.

 

The eternal residence of the supreme lord (tripada-vibhuti) is beyond the material realm (ekapada vibhuti).

(Vs. 1.1.27)

 

2.6.19, 20

padesu sarva-bhutani

pumsah sthiti-pado viduh

amrtam ksemam abhayam

tri-murdhno 'dhayi murdhasu

 


The Supreme Personality of Godhead is to be known as the supreme reservoir of all material opulences by the one fourth of His energy in which all the living entities exist. Deathlessness, fearlessness and freedom from the anxieties of old age and disease exist in the kingdom of God, which is beyond the three higher planetary systems and beyond the material coverings.

 

padas trayo bahih casann

aprajanam ya asramah

antas tri-lokyas tv aparo

grha-medho 'brhad-vratah

 

The spiritual world, which consists of three fourths of the Lord's energy, is situated beyond this material world, and it is especially meant for those who will never be reborn. Others, who are attached to family life and who do not strictly follow celibacy vows, must live within the three material worlds.

 

 

Adhikarana 11: The Word 'Prana' Refers To Brahman.         

 

In the vedas a jiva like indra sometimes declares 'worship me as prana' (the life of all that lives). The supreme lord is the life of the demigods and all living entities. Indra is speaking on behalf of brahman.

(Vs. 1.1.28)

 

4.9.6,7

dhruva uvaca

yo 'ntah pravisya mama vacam imam prasuptam

sanjivayaty akhila-sakti-dharah sva-dhamna

anyams ca hasta-carana-sravana-tvag-adin

pranan namo bhagavate purusaya tubhyam

 

Dhruva Maharaja said: My dear Lord, You are all-powerful. After entering within me, You have enlivened all my sleeping senses—my hands, legs, ears, touch sensation, life force and especially my power of speech. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 

ekas tvam eva bhagavann idam atma-saktya

mayakhyayoru-gunaya mahad-ady-asesam

srstvanuvisya purusas tad-asad-gunesu

naneva darusu vibhavasuvad vibhasi

 

My Lord, You are the supreme one, but by Your different energies You appear differently in the spiritual and material worlds. You create the total energy of the material world by Your external potency, and after creation You enter within the material world as the Supersoul. You are the Supreme Person, and through the temporary modes of  material nature You create varieties of manifestation, just as fire, entering into wood of different shapes, burns brilliantly in different varieties.

 

Objection: but indra very clearly refers to himself as the life of all that lives. It must be concluded that he, the jiva, is himself brahman.

(Vs. 1.1.29)

 

5.19.26, 27

yaih sraddhaya barhisi bhagaso havir

niruptam istam vidhi-mantra-vastutah

ekah prthan-namabhir ahuto muda

grhnati purnah svayam asisam prabhuh

 

In India [Bharata-varsa], there are many worshipers of the demigods, the various officials appointed by the Supreme Lord, such as Indra, Candra and Surya, all of whom are worshiped differently. The worshipers offer the demigods their oblations, considering the demigods part and parcel of the whole, the Supreme Lord. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead accepts these offerings and gradually raises the worshipers to the real standard of devotional service by fulfilling their desires and aspirations. Because the Lord is complete, He offers the worshipers the benedictions they desire even if they worship only part of His transcendental body.

 

satyam disaty arthitam arthito nrnam

naivarthado yat punar arthita yatah

svayam vidhatte bhajatam anicchatam

icchapidhanam nija-pada-pallavam

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead fulfills the material desires of a devotee who approaches Him with such motives, but He does not bestow benedictions upon the devotee that will cause him to demand more benedictions again. However, the Lord willingly gives the devotee shelter at His own lotus feet, even though such a person does not aspire for it, and that shelter satisfies all his desires. That is the Supreme Personality's special mercy.

 

Reply: indra, in the ecstacy of god realization, said that the supreme self behind the individual self is the life of all that lives.

(Vs. 1.1.30)

 

4.7.43

gandharva ucuh

amsamsas te deva maricy-adaya ete

brahmendradya deva-gana rudra-purogah

krida-bhandam vinam idam yasya vibhuman

tasmai nityam natha namas te karavama

 

The Gandharvas said: Dear Lord, all the demigods, including Lord Siva, Lord Brahma, Indra and Marici and the great sages, are all only differentiated parts and parcels of Your body. You are the Supreme Almighty Great; the whole creation is just like a plaything for You. We always accept You as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and we offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

 

Indra's statement cannot be taken to mean that the individual soul and the supreme soul are both the life of all that lives, for the life of the jiva depends in every way upon the supreme soul.

(Vs. 1.1.31)

 

11.12.20

ayam hi jivas tri-vid adja-yonir

avyakta eko vayasa sa adyah

vislista-saktir bahudheva bhati

bijani yonim pratipadya yadvat

 

When many seeds are placed in an agricultural field, innumerable manifestations of trees, bushes, vegetables and so on will arise from a single source, the soil. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who gives life to all and is eternal, originally exists beyond the scope of the cosmic manifestation. In the course of time, however, the Lord, who is the resting place of the three modes of nature and the source of the universal lotus flower, in which the cosmic manifestation takes place, divides His material potencies and thus appears to be manifest in innumerable forms, although He is one.

 

 

z

CHAPTER TWO              

 [Vedanta-sutra Reference: First Adhyaya, Pada Two]

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter Two •

 

1. The word 'Manomaya' refers to Brahman.

2. The Eater is Brahman.

3. The Associate in the cave of the heart is Brahman.

4. The Person in the eye is Brahman.

5. The Antaryami is Brahman.

6. 'Aksara' is Brahman.

7. 'Vaisvanara' is Brahman.

 

 

Adhikarana 1:

The Word 'Manomaya' Refers To Brahman.        

 

'Manomaya' (He Who Is Unknown To The Mundane Mind And Knowable Only To The Pure Mind) Is 'Prana-Sarira' (Embodied In The Total Life-Energy); I.E. Manomaya Is The Controller Of The Total Prana, Which Gives Life To The Senses Of All Beings.

(Vs. 1.2.1)

 

1.7.4

bhakti-yogena manasi

samyak pranihite 'male

apasyat purusam purnam

mayam ca tad-apasrayam

 

Thus he fixed his mind, perfectly engaging it by linking it in devotional service [bhakti-yoga] without any tinge of materialism, and thus he saw the Absolute Personality of Godhead along with His external energy, which was under full control.

 

2.10.15,16

antah sarira akasat

purusasya vicestatah

ojah saho balam jajne

tatah prano mahan asuh

 

From the sky situated within the transcendental body of the manifesting Maha-Visnu, sense energy, mental force and bodily strength are all generated, as well as the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.

 

anuprananti yam pranah

pranantam sarva jantusu

apanantam apananti

nara-devam ivanugah

 

As the followers of a king follow their lord, similarly when the total energy is in motion, all other living entities move, and when the total energy stops endeavoring, all other living entities stop sensual activities.

 


11.12.17

sri bhagavan uvaca

sa eso jivo vivara-prasutih

pranena ghosena guham pravistah

mano-mayam suksmam upetya rupam

matra svaro varna iti sthavistah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, the Supreme Lord gives life to every living being and is situated within the heart along with the life air and primal sound vibration. The Lord can be perceived in His subtle form within the heart by great demigods like Lord Siva. The Supreme Lord also assumes a gross form as the various sounds of the Vedas, composed of short and long vowels and consonants of different intonations.

 

only lord visnu, the supreme brahman, is manomaya. it is impossible for a jiva to possess this attribute.

(Vs. 1.2.2)

12.8.40

sri-markandeya uvaca

kim varnaye tava vibho yad-udirito 'suh

samspandate tam anu van-mana-indriyani

spandanti vai tanu-bhrtam aja-sarvayos ca

svasyapy athapi bhajatam asi bhava-bandhuh

 

Sri Markandeya said: O Almighty Lord, how can I possible describe You? You awaken the vital air, which then impels the mind, senses and power of speech to act. This is true for all ordinary conditioned souls and even for great demigods like Brahma and Siva. So it is certainly true for me. Nevertheless, You become the intimate friend of those who worship You.

 

the jiva is not manomaya, for he is like a glowworm before the effulgent supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.2.3)

6.16.46

viditam ananta samastam

tava jagad-atmano janair ihacaritam

vijnapyam parama-guroh

kiyad iva savitur iva khadyotaih

 

O unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead, whatever a living entity does in this material world is well known to You because You are the Supersoul. In the presence of the sun there is nothing to be revealed by the light of a glowworm. Similarly, because You know everything, in Your presence there is nothing for me to make known.

 

even the most exalted jivas remain always subordinate to he who is manomaya.

(Vs. 1.2.4.)

6.16.48

yam vai svasantam anu visva-srjah svasanti

yam cekitanam anu cittaya uccakanti

bhu-mandalam sarsapayati yasya murdhni

tasmai namo bhagavate 'stu sahasra-murdhne

 

My dear Lord, it is after Your endeavor that Lord Brahma, Indra and the other directors of the cosmic manifestation become occupied with their activities. It is after You perceive the material energy, My Lord, that the senses begin to perceive. The Supreme Personality of Godhead holds all the universes on His heads like seeds of mustard. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, that Supreme Personality, who has thousands of hoods.

 


manomaya is worshiped; the living entities are his worshipers.

(Vs. 1.2.5-6)

 

8.5.27

vipascitam prana-mano-dhiyatmanam

arthendriyabhasam anidram avranam

chayatapau yatra na grdhra-paksau

tam aksaram kham tri-yugam vrajamahe

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead directly and indirectly knows how everything, including the living force, mind and intelligence, is working under His control. He is the illuminator of everything and has no ignorance. He does not have a material body subject to the reactions of previous activities, and He is free from the ignorance of partiality and materialistic education. I therefore take shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, who is eternal, all-pervading and as great as the sky and who appears with six opulences in three yugas [Satya, Treta and Dvapara].

 

7.5.14

yatha bhramyaty ayo brahman

svayam akarsa-sannidhau

tatha me bhidyate cetas

cakra-paner yadrcchaya

 

O brahmanas [teachers], as iron attracted by a magnetic stone moves automatically toward the magnet, my consciousness, having been changed by His will, is attracted by Lord Visnu, who carries a disc in His hand. Thus I have no independence.

 

the supreme lord, not the jiva, is to be meditated upon within the heart as the most subtle (or as the smallest).

(Vs. 1.2.7)

 

8.6.8

sri-brahmovaca

ajata janma-sthiti-samyamaya-

gunaya nirvana-sukharnavaya

anor animne 'panganya-dhamne

mahanubhavaya namo namas te

 

Lord Brahma said: Although You are never born, Your appearance and disappearance as an incarnation never cease. You are always free from the material qualities, and You are the shelter of transcendental bliss resembling an ocean. Eternally existing in Your transcendental form, You are the supreme subtle of the most extremely subtle. We  therefore offer our respectful obeisances unto You, the Supreme, whose existence is inconceivable.

 

though the supreme lord and the jiva in the heart are inseparable, the supreme lord is always transcendental to the mundane experiences of the jiva (pleasure, pain etc.).

(Vs. 1.2.8)

sarvesu sasvat tanu-bhrtsv avasthitam

yatha kham atmanam abhistam isvaram

vedopagitam ca na srnuvate 'budha

mano-rathanam pravadanti vartaya

 


The Personality of Godhead is eternally situated within the heart of every embodied being; still the Lord remains situated apart, just as the sky, which is all-pervading, does not mix with any material object. Thus the Lord is the supreme worshipable object and the absolute controller of everything. He is elaborately glorified in the Vedic literature, but those who are bereft of intelligence to not like to hear about Him. They prefer to waste their time discussing their own mental concoctions, which inevitably deal with gross material sense gratification such as sex life and meat-eating.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: The Eater Is Brahman.

 

brahman, the supreme lord who the source of creation, also destroys (eats) the creation. unlike the jiva, who eats the fruits of work, the supreme lord is not implicated in karma.

(Vs. 1.2.9-10)

 

12.11.24

dvija-rsabha sa esa brahma-yonih svayam-drk

sva-mahima-paripurno mayaya ca svayaitat

srjati harati patity akhyayanavrtakso

vivrta iva niruktas tat-parair atma labyah

 

O best of the brahmanas, He alone is the self-luminous, original source of the Vedas, perfect and complete in His own glory. By His material energy He creates, destroys and maintains this entire universe. Because He is the performer of various material functions, He is sometimes described as materially divided, yet He always remains transcendentally situated in pure knowledge. Those who are dedicated to Him in devotion can realize Him to be their true Soul.

 

4.11.18

sa khalv idam bhagavan kala-saktya

guna-pravahena vibhakta-viryah

karoty akartaiva nihanty ahanta

cesta vibhumnah khalu durvibhavya

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His inconceivable supreme energy, time, causes the interaction of the three modes of material nature, and thus varieties of energy become manifest. It appears that He is acting, but He is not the actor. He is killing, but He is not the killer. Thus it is understood that only by His inconceivable power is everything happening.

 

6.9.34

duravabodha iva tavayam vihara-yogo yad asarano 'sarira idam anaveksitasmat-samavaya atmanaivavikriyamanena sagunam agunah srjasi pasi harasi.

 

O Lord, You need no support, and although You have no material body, You do not need cooperation from us. Since You are the cause of the cosmic manifestation and You supply its material ingredients without being transformed, You create, maintain and annihilate this cosmic manifestation by Yourself. Nevertheless, although You appear engaged in material activity, You are transcendental to all material qualities. Consequently these transcendental activities of Yours are extremely difficult to understand.

 

 


Adhikarana 3:

The Associate In The Cave Of The Heart Is Brahman.  

 

the supreme lord dwells with the jiva in the heart. there the jiva depends upon the supreme lord alone, and not upon the intelligence and the life air.

(Vs. 1.2.11)

 

8.5.26, 27

sri-brahmovaca

avikriyam satyam anantam adyam

guha-sayam niskalam apratarkyam

mano-'grayanam vacasaniruktam

namamahe deva-varam varenyam

 

Lord Brahma said: O Supreme Lord, O changeless, unlimited supreme truth. You are the origin of everything. Being all-pervading, You are in everyone's heart and also in the atom. You have no material qualities. Indeed, You are inconceivable. The mind cannot catch You by speculation, and words fail to describe You. You are the supreme master of everyone, and therefore You are worshipable for everyone. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

 

vipascitam prana-mano-dhiyatmanam

arthendriyabhasam anidram avranam

chayatapau yatra na grdhra-paksau

tam aksaram kham tri-yugam vrajamahe

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead directly and indirectly knows how everything, including the living force, mind and intelligence, is working under His control. He is the illuminator of everything and has no ignorance. He does not have a material body subject to the reactions of previous activities, and He is free from the ignorance of partiality and materialistic education. I therefore take shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, who is eternal, all-pervading and as great as the sky and who appears with six opulences in three yugas [Satya, Treta and Dvapara].

 

the supreme lord is the all-knowing goal of the self-controlled yogis. the jiva who dwells with the supreme lord in the heart is neither all-knowing nor the goal of yoga.

(Vs. 1.2.12)

 

8.5.29

ya eka-varnam tamasah param tad

alokam avyaktam ananta-param

asam cakaropasuparnam enam

upasate yoga-rathena dhirah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated in pure goodness [suddha-sattva], and therefore He is eka-varna—the omkara [pranava]. Because the Lord is beyond the cosmic manifestation, which is considered to be darkness, He is not visible to material eyes. Nonetheless, He is not separated from us by time or space, but is present everywhere. Seated on His carrier, Garuda, He is worshiped by means of mystical yogic power by those who have achieved freedom from agitation. Let us all offer our respectful obeisances unto Him.

 


Adhikarana 4:

The Person In The Eye Is Brahman.          

 

the supreme lord is understood by the wise to be the power of sight within the physical body.

(Vs. 1.2.13)

 

3.27.11

mukta-lingam sad-abhasam

asati pratipadyate

sato bandhum asac-caksuh

sarvanusyutam advayam

 

A liberated soul realizes the Absolute Personality of Godhead, who is transcendental and who is manifest as a reflection even in the false ego. He is the support of the material cause and He enters into everything. He is absolute, one without a second, and He is the eyes of the illusory energy.

 

it is known on vedic authority that the supreme lord enters the senses of the living entities and activates them. thus does he dwell within the eye.

(Vs. 1.2.14)

 

11.3.4

evam srstani bhutani

pravistah panca-dhatubhih

ekadha dasadhatmanam

vibhajan jusate gunan

 

The Supersoul enters the material bodies of the created beings, activates the mind and senses, and thus causes the conditioned souls to approach the three modes for sense gratification.

 

2.10.8

yo 'dhyatmiko 'yam purusah

so 'sav evadhidaivikah

yas tatrobhaya-vicchedah

puruso hy adhibhautikah

 

The individual person possessing different instruments of senses is called the adhyatmic person, and the individual controlling deity of the senses is called adhidaivic. The embodiment seen on the eyeballs is called the adhibhautic person.

 

the lord of the eye is an ocean of bliss. the so-called pleasures of the material eye are only a slight reflection of that bliss.

(Vs. 1.2.15)

 

6.9.39

atha ha vava tava mahimamrta-rasa-samudra-viprusa sakrd avalidhaya sva-manasi nisyandamananavarata-sukhena vismarita-drsta-srutavisaya-sukha-lesabhasah parama-bhagavata ekantino bhagavati sarvabhuta-priya-suhrdi sarvatmani nitaram nirantaram nirvrta-manasah katham uha va ete madhumathana punah svartha-kusala hy atmapriya-suhrdah sadhavas tvac-caranambujanusevam visrjanti na yatra punar ayam samsara-paryavartah.

 


Therefore, O killer of the Madhu demon, incessant transcendental bliss flows in the minds of those who have even once tasted but a drop of the nectar from the ocean of Your glories. Such exalted devotees forget the tiny reflection of so-called material happiness produced from the material senses of sight and sound. Free from all desires, such devotees are the real friends of all living entities. Offering their minds unto You and enjoying transcendental bliss, they are expert in achieving the real goal of life. O Lord, You are the soul and dear friend of such devotees, who never need return to this material world. How could they give up engagement in Your devotional service?

 

The vedas declare, arcisam abhisambhavati: 'whosoever knows that person within the eye attains the realm of light.' the vedas also declare that whosoever hears the glories of the supreme lord attains the realm of light. Hence, the person within the eye is the supreme lord, whose own eye is the sun.

(Vs. 1.2.16)

 

8.5.36

yac-caksur asit taranir deva-yanam

trayimayo brahmana esa dhisnyam

dvaram ca mukter amrtam ca mrtyuh

prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih

 

The sun-god marks the path of liberation, which is called arciradi-vartma. He is the chief source for understanding of the Vedas, he is the abode where the Absolute Truth can be worshiped, He is the gateway to liberation, and he is the source of eternal life as well as the cause of death. The sun-god is the eye of the Lord. May that Supreme Lord, who is supremely opulent, be pleased with us.

 

5.20.46

deva-tiryan-manusyanam

sarisrpa-savirudham

sarva jiva-nikayanam

surya atma drg-isvarah

 

All living entities, including demigods, human beings, animals, birds, insects, reptiles, creepers and trees, depend upon the heat and light given by the sun-god from the sun planet. Furthermore, it is because of the sun's presence that all living entities can see, and therefore he is called drg-isvara, the Personality of Godhead presiding over sight.

 

No one else than the supreme lord could be the person within the eye.

(Vs. 1.2.17)

 

6.9.38

sa eva hi punah sarva-vastuni vastu-svarupah sarvesvarah sakala jagat-karana-karana-bhutah sarva-pratyag-atmatvat sarvagunabhasopalaksita eka eva paryavasesitah.

 

With deliberation, one will see that the Supreme Soul, although manifested in different ways, is actually the basic principle of everything. The total material energy is the cause of the material manifestation, but the material energy is caused by Him. Therefore He is the cause of all causes, the manifester of intelligence and the senses. He is perceived as the Supersoul of everything. Without Him, everything would be dead. You, as that Supersoul, the supreme controller, are the only one remaining.

 

 


Adhikarana 5: The Antaryami Is Brahman.              

 

The Antaryami (The Ruler Within) Is The Supreme Personality Of Godhead.

(Vs. 1.2.18)

 

5.20.28

antah-pravisya bhutani

yo bibharty atma-ketubhih

antaryamisvarah saksat

patu no yad-vase sphutam

 

[The inhabitants of Sakadvipa worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of Vayu in the following words.] O Supreme Person, situated as the Supersoul within the body, You direct the various actions of the different airs, such as prana, and thus You maintain all living entities. O Lord, O Supersoul of everyone, O controller of the cosmic manifestation under whom everything exists, may You protect us from all dangers.

 

The antaryami is not pradhana (the unmanifest material nature), because as the witness and knower he is conscious of everything, whereas the pradhana is unconscious.

(Vs. 1.2.19)

 

8.1.9

sri-manur uvaca

yena cetayate visvam

visvam cetayate na yam

yo jagarti sayane 'smin

nayam tam veda veda sah

 

Lord Manu said: The supreme living being has created this material world of animation; it is not that He was created by this material world. When everything is silent, the Supreme Being stays awake as a witness. The living entity does not know Him, but He knows everything.

 

8.1.11

yam pasyati na pasyantam

caksur yasya na risyati

tam bhuta-nilayam devam

suparnam upadhavata

 

Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead constantly watches the activities of the world, no one sees Him. However, one should not think that because no one sees Him, He does not see, for His power to see is never diminished. Therefore, everyone should worship the Supersoul, who always stays with the individual soul as a friend.

 

The antaryami is not a jiva who attained perfection through yoga, for even in perfection, the jiva is different from the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.2.20)

 

3.15.45

pumsam gatim mrgayatam iha yoga-margair

dhyanaspadam bahu-matam nayanabhiramam

paumsnam vapur darsayanam ananya-siddhair

autpattikaih samagrnan yutam asta-bhogaih

 

This is the form of the Lord which is meditated upon by the followers of the yoga process, and it is pleasing to the yogis in meditation. It is not imaginary but factual, as proved by great yogis. The Lord is full in eight kinds of achievement, but for others these achievements are not possible in full perfection.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: 'Aksara' Is Brahman.                 

 

The antaryami is distinguished from the jiva by his divine attributes of omniscience and invisibility.

(Vs. 1.2.21)

 

8.3.10

nama atma-pradipaya

saksine paramatmane

namo giram viduraya

manasas cetasam api

 

I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the self-effulgent Supersoul, who is the witness in everyone's heart, who enlightens the individual soul and who cannot be reached by exercises of the mind, words or consciousness.

 

Being omniscient, he is not matter. Having an invisible nonmaterial form, he is not a conditioned soul.

(Vs. 1.2.22)

 

8.3.26-27

so'ham visva-srjam visvam

avisvam visva-vedasam

visvatmanam ajam brahma

pranato 'smi param padam

 

Now, fully desiring release from material life, I offer my respectful obeisances unto that Supreme Person who is the creator of the universe, who is Himself the form of the universe and who is nonetheless transcendental to this cosmic manifestation. He is the supreme knower of everything in this world, the Supersoul of the universe. He is the unborn, supremely situated Lord. I offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

 

yoga-randhita-karmano

hrdi yoga-vibhavite

yogino yam prapasyanti

yogesam tam nato 'smy aham

 

I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme, the Supersoul, the master of all mystic yoga, who is seen in the core of the heart by perfect mystics when they are completely purified and freed from the reactions of fruitive activity by practicing bhakti-yoga.

 

The form of the antaryami is the source of all; such a form as this cannot belong to a jiva.

(Vs. 1.2.23)

 

1.3.3, 4

yasyavayava-samsthanaih

kalpito loka-vistarah

tad vai bhagavato rupam

visuddham sattvam urjitam

 

It is believed that all the universal planetary systems are situated on the extensive body of the purusa, but He has nothing to do with the created material ingredients. His body is eternally in spiritual existence par excellence.

 

pasyanty ado rupam adabhra-caksusa

sahasra-padoru-bhujananadbhutam

sahasra-murdha-sravanaksi-nasikam

sahasra-mauly-ambara-kundalollasat

 

The devotees, with their perfect eyes, see the transcendental form of the purusa who has thousands of legs, thighs, arms and faces—all extraordinary. In that body there are thousands of heads, ears, eyes and noses. They are decorated with thousands of helmets and glowing earrings and are adorned with garlands.

 

The antaryami is most subtle. He is the goal of those who are conversant with superior knowledge (para vidya). The hymns of the vedas convey gross, inferior knowledge (apara vidya).

(Vs. 1.2.24)

 

11.12.17

sri-bhagavan uvaca

sa esa jivo vivara-prasutih

pranena ghosena guham pravistah

mano-mayam suksmam upetya rupam

matra svaro varna iti sthavistah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My Dear Uddhava, the Supreme Lord gives life to every living being and is situated within the heart along with the life air and primal sound vibration. The Lord can be perceived in His subtle form within the heart by one's mind, since the Lord controls the minds of everyone, even great demigods like Lord Siva. The Supreme Lord also assumes a gross form as the various sounds of the Vedas, composed of short and long vowels and consonants of different intonations.

 

8.3.16

guna-rani-cchanna-cid-usmapaya

tat-ksobha-visphurjita-manasaya

naiskarmya-bhavena vivarjitagama-

svayam-prakasaya namas karomi

 

My Lord, as the fire in arani wood is covered, You and Your unlimited knowledge are covered by the material modes of nature. Your mind, however, is not attentive to the activities of the modes of nature. Those who are advanced in spiritual knowledge are not subject to the regulative principles directed in the Vedic literatures. Because such advanced souls are transcendental, You personally appear in their pure minds. Therefore I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 

 

Adhikarana 7: 'Vaisvanara' Is Brahman.               

 

'Vaisvanara' (visva=all, nara=men) is a name of the supreme lord meaning 'the shelter of all men.' thus the vedic path of fire worship is aimed at the supreme lord narayana.

(Vs. 1.2.25)

 

2.2.24

vaisvanaram yati vihayasa gatah

susumnaya brahma-pathena socis a

vidhuta-kalko 'tha harer udastat

prayati cakram nrpa saiumaram

 


O King, when such a mystic passes over the Milky Way by the illuminating Susumna to reach the highest planet, Brahmaloka, he goes first to Vaisvanara, the planet of the deity of fire, wherein he becomes completely cleansed of all contaminations, and thereafter he still goes higher, to the circle of Sisumara, to relate with Lord Hari, the Personality of Godhead.

 

vaisnavara is the expansion of the supersoul within the abdominal cavity.

(Vs. 1.2.26)

 

10.87.18

udaram upasate ya rsi-vartmasu kurpa-drsah

parisara-paddhatim hrdayam arunayo daharam

tata udgad ananta tava dhama sirah paramam

punar iha yat sametya na patanti krtanta-mukhe

 

Among the followers of the methods set forth by great sages, those with less refined vision worship the Supreme as present in the region of the abdomen, while the Arunis worship Him as present in the heart, in the subtle center from which all the pranic channels emanate. From there, O unlimited Lord, these worshipers raise their consciousness upward to the top of the head, where they can perceive You directly. Then, passing through the top of the head toward the supreme destination, they reach that place from which they will never again fall to this world, into the mouth of death.

 

vaisvanara is the supreme lord visnu who is to be meditated upon as agni, the internal fire who has a personal form.

(Vs. 1.2.27)

 

11.16.13

indro 'ham sarva-devanam

vasunam asmi havya-vat

adityanam aham visnu

rudranam nila-lohitah

 

Among the demigods I am Indra, and among the Vasus I am Agni, the god of fire. I am Visnu among the sons of Aditi, and among the Rudras I am Lord Siva.

 

one who meditates upon vaisnavara as a demigod or a material element is misled.

(Vs. 1.2.28)

 

4.7.4

agnir uvaca

yat-tejasaham susamiddha-teja

havyam vahe svadhvara ajya-siktam

tam yajniyam panca-vidham ca pancabhih

svistam yajurbhih pranato 'smi yajnam

 

The fire-god said: My dear Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You because by Your favor I am as luminous as blazing fire and I accept the offerings mixed with butter and offered in sacrifice. The five kinds of offerings according to the Yajur Veda are all Your different energies, and You are worshiped by five kinds of Vedic hymns. Sacrifice means Your Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

2.1.39

sa sama-dhi-vrtty-anubhuta-sama

atma yatha svapna janeksitaikah

tam satyam ananda-nidhim bhajeta

nanyatra sajjed yata atma-patah

 

One should concentrate his mind upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who alone distributes Himself in so many manifestations just as ordinary persons create thousands of manifestations in dreams. One must concentrate the mind on Him, the only all-blissful Absolute Truth. Otherwise one will be misled and will cause his own degradation.

 

Sage Jaimini Declares That Because Agni Means 'He Who Leads Others' Or 'He Who Gives Birth To All Others', Agni Is Directly A Name Of The Supreme Lord.

(Vs. 1.2.29)

 

2.5.6.

naham veda param hy asmin

naparam na samam vibho

nama-rupa-gunair bhavyam

sad-asat kincid anyatah

 

Whatever we can understand by the nomenclature, characteristics and features of a particular thing—superior, inferior or equal, eternal or temporary—is not created from any source other than that of Your Lordship, thou so great.

 

 

sage asmarathya declares that vaisvanara is the name of the supreme lord because he manifests himself from within the hearts of his devotees like fire manifests out of wood.

(Vs. 1.2.30)

 

6.4.27

manisino 'ntar-hrdi sannivesitam

sva-saktibhir navabhis ca trivrdbhih

vahnim yatha daruni pancadasyam

manisaya niskarsanti gudham

 

Just as great learned brahmanas who are expert in performing ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices can extract the fire dormant within wooden fuel by chanting the fifteen Samidheni mantras, thus proving the efficacy of the Vedic mantras, so those who are actually advanced in consciousness—in other words, those who are Krsna conscious—can find the Supersoul, who by His own spiritual potency is situated within the heart. The heart is covered by the three modes of material nature and the nine material elements [material nature, the total material energy, the ego, the mind and the five objects of sense gratification], and also by the five material elements and the ten senses. These twenty-seven elements constitute the external energy of the Lord. Great yogis meditate upon the Lord, who is situated as the Supersoul, Paramatma, within the core of the heart.

 

vaisvanara is to be meditated upon within the heart; thus he is called pradesa matra (the measure of the eight-inch span between the tip of the thumb and forefinger, the size of the heart). so declares sage badari.

(Vs. 1.2.31)

 

2.2.8

kecit sva-de hantar-hrdayava kase

pradesa-matram purusam vasantam

catur-bhujam kanja-rathanga-sankha-

gada-dharam dharanaya smaranti

 

Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell and a club respectively.

 


sage jaimini declares the form of the supreme lord to be full of inconceivable potency; thus does he dwell in the hearts of all beings.

(Vs. 1.2.32)

 

7.6.20-23

paravaresu bhutesu

brahmanta-sthavaradisu

bhautikesu vikaresu

bhutesv atha mahatsu ca

 

gunesu guna-samye ca

guna-vyatikare tatha-

eka eva paro hy atma

bhagavan isvaro 'vyayah

 

pratya g-atma-svarupena

drsya-rupena ca svayam

vyapya-vyapaka-nirdesyo

hy anirdesyo 'vikalpitah

 

kevalanubhavananda-

svarupah paramesvarah

mayayantarhitaisvarya

iyate guna-sargaya

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, who is infallible and indefatigable, is present in different forms of life, from the inert living beings [sthavara], such as the plants, to Brahma, the foremost created living being. He is also present in the varieties of material creations and in the material elements, the total material energy and the modes of material nature [sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna], as well as the unmanifested material nature and the false ego. Although He is one, He is present everywhere, and He is also the transcendental Supersoul, the cause of all causes, who is present as the observer in the cores of the hearts of all living entities. He is indicated as that which is pervaded and as the all-pervading Supersoul, but actually He cannot be indicated. He is changeless and undivided. He is simply perceived as the supreme sac-cid-ananda [eternity, knowledge and bliss]. Being covered by the curtain of the external energy, to the atheist He appears nonexistent.

 

the vedas testify to the inconceivabile potency of the form of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.2.33)

 

10.14.2

asyapi deva vapuso mad-anugrahasya

sveccha-mayasya na tu bhuta-mayasya ko 'pi

nese mahi tv avasitum manasantarena

saksat tavaiva kim utatma-sukhanubhuteh

 

My dear Lord, neither I nor anyone else can estimate the potency of this transcendental body of Yours, which has shown such mercy to me and which appears just to fulfill the desires of Your pure devotees. Although my mind is completely withdrawn from material affairs, I cannot understand Your personal form. How, then, could I possibly understand the happiness You experience within Yourself?

 

10.87.41

dyu-pataya eva te na yayur antam anantataya

tvam api yad-antaranda-nicaya nanu savaranah

kha iva rajamsi vanti vayasa saha yac chrutayas

tvayi hi phalanty atan-nirasanena bhavan-nidhanah

 

Because You are unlimited, neither the lords of heaven nor even You Yourself can ever reach the end of Your glories. The countless universes, each enveloped in its shell, are compelled by the wheel of time to wander within You, like particles of dust blowing about in the sky. The srutis, following their method of eliminating everything separate from the Supreme, become successful by revealing You as their final conclusion.

 

 

z

 

 

CHAPTER THREE             

 [Vedanta-sutra Reference: First Adhyaya, Pada Three]

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter Three •

 

1. Brahman is the abode of heaven.

2. 'Bhuman' is Brahman.

3. 'Aksara' refers to Brahman.

4. The Purusa seen in Brahmaloka is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

5. The 'Dahara' is Brahman.

6. He who is measured by a thumb is Brahman.

7. The Devas can meditate upon Brahman.

8. Sudras are not qualified for Vedic meditation.

9. The thunderbolt in the Katha Upanisad 2.3.2 is Brahman.

10. The 'Akasa' in Chhandogya Upanisad 8.14.1 is Brahman.

11. At both the time of dreamless sleep and the time of the jiva's liberation from the material world, the jiva and the Supreme Brahman are different.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: Brahman Is The Abode Of Heaven.           

 

'Heaven' (Dyu), 'Earth' (Bhu), And Other Abodes That The Vedas Direct Humans To Seek, Refer Only To The Supreme Lord. By Crossing The Bridge Of The Vedas, The Devotee Leaves Behind The Temporary Material Shore And Attains The Eternal Abode, Vaikuntha.

(Vs. 1.3.1)

 

3.15.15

yatra cadyah puman aste

bhagavan sabda-gocarah

sattvam vistabhya virajam

svanam no mrdayan vrsah

 

In the Vaikuntha planets is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the original person and who can be understood through the Vedic literature. He is full of the uncontaminated mode of goodness, with no place for passion or ignorance. He contributes religious progress for the devotees.

 

4.29.48

svam lokam na vidus te vai

yatra devo janardanah

ahur dhumra-dhiyo vedam

sakarmakam atad-vidah

 

Those who are less intelligent accept the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies as all in all. They do not know that the purpose of the Vedas is to understand one's own home, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead lives. Not being interested in their real home, they are illusioned and search after other homes.

 

the liberated souls know the goal of vedic dharma to be the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.3.2.)

 

6.16.40

jitam ajita tada bhavata

yadaha bhagavatam dharmam anavadyam

niskincana ye munaya

atmarama yam upasate 'pavargaya

 

O unconquerable one, when You spoke about bhagavata-dharma, which is the uncontaminated religious system for achieving the shelter of Your lotus feet, that was Your victory. Persons who have no material desires, like the Kumaras, who are self-satisfied sages, worship You to be liberated from material contamination. In other words, they accept the process of bhagavata-dharma to achieve shelter at Your lotus feet.

 

sabda (the spiritual sound of the vedas) does not present material nature as the goal of vedic dharma.

(Vs. 1.3.3.)

 

6.16.51

aham vai sarva-bhutani

bhutatma bhuta-bhavanah

sabda-brahma param brahma

mamobhe sasvati tanu

 

All living entities, moving and nonmoving, are My expansions and are separate from Me. I am the Supersoul of all living beings, who exist because I manifest them. I am the form of the transcendental vibrations like omkara and Hare Krsna Hare Rama, and I am the Supreme Absolute Truth. These two forms of Mine—namely, the transcendental sound and the eternally blissful spiritual form of the Deity, are My eternal forms; they are not material.

 

the terms 'heaven' and 'earth' do not indicate the individual soul as the goal, for like matter, the jivas are the subordinate energy of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.3.4)

 

6.16.52

loke vitatam atmanam

lokam catmani santatam

ubhayam ca maya vyaptam

mayi caivobhayam krtam

 

In this world of matter, which the conditioned soul accepts as consisting of enjoyable resources, the conditioned soul expands, thinking that he is the enjoyer of the material world. Similarly, the material world expands in the living entity as a source of enjoyment. In this way they both expand, but because they are My energies, they are both pervaded by Me. As the Supreme Lord, I am the cause of these effects, and one should know that both of them rest in Me.

 

individual souls are not supreme. they are separated from the lord by forgetfulness. the forgetful soul cannot know the true meaning of 'heaven' and 'earth.'

(Vs. 1.3.5)

 


6.16.57, 58

yad etad vismrtam pumso

mad-bhavam bhinnam atmanah

tatah samsara etasya

dehad deho mrter mrtih

 

When a living entity, thinking himself different from Me, forgets his spiritual identity of qualitative oneness with Me in eternity, knowledge and bliss, his material, conditional life begins. In other words, instead of identifying his interest with Mine, he becomes interested in his bodily expansions like his wife, children and material possessions. In this way, by the influence of his actions, one body comes from another, and after one death, another death takes place.

 

labdhveha manusim yonim

jnana-vijnana-sambhavam

atmanam yo na buddhyeta

na kvacit ksemam apnuyat

 

A human being can attain perfection in life by self-realization through the Vedic literature and its practical application. This is possible especially for a human being born in India, the land of piety. A man who obtains birth in such a convenient position but does not understand his self is unable to achieve the highest perfection, even if he is exalted to life in the higher planetary systems.

 

because everything is brahman (the energy of god), everything (cosmic creation, sustenance and destruction) is knowable by knowledge of the supreme lord alone; knowledge only of the individual soul is not knowledge of brahman.

(Vs. 1.3.6)

 

6.16.22

yasminn idam yatas cedam

tisthaty apyeti jayate

mrnmayesv iva mrjjatis

tasmai te brahmane namah

 

As pots made completely of earth are situated on earth after being created and are transformed into earth again when broken, this cosmic manifestation is caused by the Supreme Brahman, situated in the Supreme Brahman, and annihilated in the same Supreme Brahman. Therefore, since the Supreme Lord is the cause of Brahman, let us offer Him our respectful obeisances.

 

the difference between the supreme lord and the individual soul is indicated by the example of two birds (from the mundaka upanisad).

(Vs. 1.3.7)

 

11.11.6

suparnav etau sadrsau sakhayau

yadrcchayaitau krta-nidau ca vrkse

ekas tayoh khadati pippalannam

anyo niranno 'pi balena bhuyan

 

By chance, two birds have made a nest together in the same tree. The two birds are friends and are of a simialr nature. One of them, however, is eating the fruits of the tree, whereas the other, who does not eat the fruits, is in a superior position due to His potency.

 

 


Adhikarana 2: 'Bhuman' Is Brahman.                 

 

the upanisadic term 'bhuman' (the fullness) means the supreme lord visnu; all other living entities are his servants and are dependent upon him.

(Vs. 1.3.8)

 

8.23.17

tathapi vadato bhuman

karisyamy anusasanam

etac chreyah param pumsam

yat tavajnanupa lanam

 

Lord Visnu, I must nonetheless act in obedience to Your order because obeying Your order is most auspicious and is the first duty of everyone.

 

the attributes of the bhuman revealed in scripture apply only to the original person (adi-purusa, sri krsna).

(Vs. 1.3.9.)

 

9.10.14

na tvam vayam jada-dhiyo nu vidama bhuman

kuta-stham adi-purusam jagatam adhisam

yat-sattvatah sura-gana rajasah prajesa

manyos ca bhuta-patayah sa bhavan gunesah

 

O all-pervading Supreme Person, we are dull-minded and did not understand who You are, but now we understand that You are the Supreme Person, the master of the entire universe, the unchanging and original Personality of Godhead. The demigods are infatuated with the mode of goodness, the Prajapatis with the mode of passion, and the lord of ghosts with the mode of ignorance, but You are the master of all these qualities.

 

 

Adhikarana 3: 'Aksara' Refers To Brahman.             

 

The Upanisadic Term 'Aksara' (The Infallible) Refers To The Supreme Lord Because He Is The Eternal Support Of Even The Most Subtle Stage Of The Cosmic Manifestation.

(Vs. 1.3.10)

 

8.3.21

tam aksaram brahma param paresam

avyaktam adhyatmika-yoga-gamyam

atindriyam suksmam ivatiduram

anantam adyam paripurnam ide

 

Thus I pray to that Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternally existing, who is invisible, who is the Lord of all great personalities, such as Brahma, and who is available only by transcendental bhakti-yoga. Being extremely subtle, He is beyond the reach of my senses and transcendental to all external realization. He is unlimited, He is the original cause, and He is completely full in everything. I offer my obeisances unto Him.

 

7.12.30, 31

apsu ksitim apo jyotisy

ado vayau nabhasy amum

kutasthe tac ca mahati

tad avyakte 'ksare ca tat

 

The earth should be merged in water, water in the brightness of the sun, this brightness into the air, the air into the sky, the sky into the false ego, the false ego into the total material energy, the total material energy into the unmanifested ingredients [the pradhana feature of the material energy], and at last the ingredient feature of material manifestation into the Supersoul.

 

ity aksaratayatmanam

cin-matram avasesitam

jnatvadvayo 'tha viramed

dagdha-yonir ivanalah

 

When all the material designations have thus merged into their respective material elements, the living beings, who are all ultimately completely spiritual, being one in quality with the Supreme Being, should cease from material existence, as flames cease when the wood in which they are burning is consumed. When the material body is returned to its various material elements, only the spiritual being remains. This spiritual being is Brahman and is equal in quality with Parabrahman.

 

the aksara is neither jiva nor material nature.

(Vs. 1.3.11, 12)

 

10.87.28

tvam akaranah sva-rad akhila-karaka-sakti-dharas

tava balim udvahanti samadanty ajayanimisah

varsa-bhujo 'khila-ksiti-pater iva visva-srjo

vidadhati yatra ye tv adhikrta bhavatas cakitah

 

Though you have no material senses, You are the self-effulgent sustainer of everyone's sensory powers. The demigods and material nature herself offer You tribute, while also enjoying the tribute offered them by their worshipers, just as subordinate rulers of various districts in a kingdom offer tribute to their lord, the ultimate proprietor of the land, while also enjoying the tribute paid them by their own subjects. In this way the universal creators faithfully execute their assigned services out of fear of You.

 

 

Adhikarana 4:

The Purusa Seen In Brahmaloka Is The Supreme Personality Of Godhead.                      

 

 

the sound om carries the meditator to the eternal abode of the supreme lord, not to the planet of caturmukha brahma.

(Vs. 1.3.13)

 

10.63.34

sri-rudra uvaca

tvam hi brahma param jyotir

gudham brahmani vak-maye

yam pasyanty amalatmana

akasam iva kevalam

 

Sri Rudra said: You alone are the Absolute Truth, the supreme light, the mystery hidden within the verbal manifestation of the Absolute. Those whose hearts are spotless can see You, for You are uncontaminated, like the sky.

 

 


Adhikarana 5: The 'Dahara' Is Brahman.               

 

the upanisadic 'dahara' (the localized seat of prana) residing in the heart refers to the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.3.14)

 

10.87.18

udaram upasate ya rsi-vartmasu kurpa-drsah

parisara-paddhatim hrdayam arunayo daharam

tata udagad ananta tava dhama sirah paramam

punar iha yat samyetya na patanti krtanta-mukhe

 

Among the followers of the methods set forth by great sages, those with less refined vision worship the Supreme as present in the region of the abdomen, while the Arunis worship Him as present in the heart, in the subtle center from which all the pranic channels emanate. From there, O unlimited Lord, these worshipers raise their consciousness upward to the top of the head, where they can perceive You directly. Then, passing through the top of the head toward the supreme destination, they reach that place from which they will never again fall to this world, into the mouth of death.

 

the dahara, the supersoul, intimately associates with the living entities, although they don't know him. they are united with him in deep sleep, although they fail to understand how.

(Vs. 1.3.15)

 

10.87.20

sva-krta-puresv amisv abahir-antara-samvaranam

tava purusam vadanty akhila-sakti-dhrto 'msa-krtam

iti nr-gatim vivicya kavayo nigamavapanam

bhavata upasate 'nghrim abhavam bhuvi visvasitah

 

The individual living entity, while inhabiting the material bodies he has created for himself by his karma, actually remains uncovered by either gross or subtle matter. This is so because, as the Vedas describe, he is part and parcel of You, the possessor of all potencies. Having determined this to be the status of the living entity, learned sages become embued with faith and worship Your lotus feet, to which all Vedic sacrifies in this world are offered, and which are the source of liberation.

 

3.7.13

yadendriyoparamo 'tha

drastratmani pare harau

viliyante tada klesah

samsuptasyeva krtsnasah

 

When the senses are satisfied in the seer-Supersoul, the Personality of Godhead, and merge in Him, all miseries are completely vanquished, as after a sound sleep.

 

the dahara, the supersoul who dwells in the heart, is the support of the entire universe.

(Vs. 1.3.16)

 

9.19.29

namas tubhyam bhagavate

vasudevaya vedhase

sarva-bhutadhivasaya

santaya brhate namah

 

O Lord Vasudeva, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are the creator of the entire cosmic manifestation. You live as the Supersoul in everyone's heart and are smaller than the smallest, yet You are greater than the greatest and are all-pervading. You appear completely silent, having nothing to do, but this is due to Your all-pervading nature and Your fullness in all opulences. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 

'dahara' means 'sky.' the word 'sky' is often used in the upanisads to signify the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.3.17)

 

3.5.32

tamaso bhuta-suksmadir

yatah kham lingam atmanah

 

The sky is a product of sound, and sound is the transformation of egoistic passion. In other words, the sky is the symbolic representation of the Supreme Soul.

 

the term dahara does not refer to the jiva, because the dahara is the source of eight spiritual qualities sought after by the jiva (apahata-papa—freedom from sins, vijara—freedom from old age, vimrtyu—freedom from death, visoka—freedom from material distress and happiness, vijighatsa—freedom from hunger, apipata—freedom from material desire, satya-kama—spiritual desire, satya-sankalpa—self-fulfillment).

(Vs. 1.3.18)

 

10.87.38

sa yad ajaya tv ajam anusayita gunams ca jausam

bhajati sarupatam tad anu mrtyum apeta-bhagah

tvam uta jahasi tam ahir iva tvacam atta-bhago

mahasi mahiyase 'sta-gunite 'parimeya-bhagah

 

The illusory material nature attracts the minute living entity to embrace her, and as a result he assumes forms composed of her qualities. Subsequently, he loses all his spiritual qualities and must undergo repeated deaths. You, however, avoid the material energy in the same way that a snake abandons its old skin. Glorious in Your possession of eight mystic perfections, You enjoy unlimited opulences.

 

by meditation upon the supreme lord, the jiva obtains perfection.

(Vs. 1.3.19)

 

4.9.52

abhyarcitas tvaya nunam

bhagavan pranatarti-ha

yad-anudhyayino dhira

mrtyum jigyuh sudurjayam

 

Dear Queen, you must have worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who delivers His devotees from the greatest danger. Persons who constantly meditate upon Him surpass the course of birth and death. This perfection is very difficult to achieve.

 

the soul attains spiritual perfection only by the grace of the supreme lord. thereupon the soul realizes his likeness to the supreme soul.

(Vs. 1.3.20)

 


4.28.62,64

aham bhavan na canyas tvam

tvam evaham vicaksva bhoh

na nau pasyanti kavayas

chidram jatu manag api

 

My dear friend, I, the Supersoul, and you, the individual soul, are not different in quality, for we are both spiritual. In fact, My dear friend, you are qualitatively not different from Me in your constitutional position. Just try to consider this subject. Those who are actually advanced scholars, who are in knowledge, do not find any qualitative difference between you and Me.

 

evam sa manaso hamso

hamsena pratibodhitah

sva-sthas tad-vyabhicarena

nastam apa punah smrtim

 

In this way both swans live together in the heart. When the one swan is instructed by the other, he is situated in his constitutional position. This means he regains his original Krsna consciousness, which was lost because of his material attraction.

 

the supersoul is the only object of yoga meditation; though he is said to be so small that he dwells in the heart, the supersoul is yet the dwelling place of all beings (narayana).

(Vs. 1.3.21)

 

2.5.16

narayana-paro yogo

narayana-param tapah

narayana-param jnanam

narayana-para gatih

 

All different types of meditation or mysticism are means for realizing Narayana. All austerities are aimed at achieving Narayana. Culture of transcendental knowledge is for getting a glimpse of Narayana, and ultimately salvation is entering the kingdom of Narayana.

 

when the individual soul is liberated, he resembles the supreme lord due to anukrta (imitation) or anusanga (intimate contact).

(Vs. 1.3.22)

 

11.12.12

ta navidan mayy anusanga-baddha

dhiyah svam atmanam adas tathedam

yatha samadhau munayo 'bdhi-toye

nadyah pravista iva nama-rupe

 

My dear Uddhava, just as great sages in yoga trance merge into self-realization, like rivers merging into the ocean, and are thus not aware of material names and forms, similarly, the gopis of Vrndavana were so completely attached to Me within their minds that they could not think of their own bodies, or of this world, or of their future lives. Their entire consciousness was simply bound up in Me.

 

liberated souls exhibit certain attributes of the supreme lord by assimilation; this is declared by the lord himself in the smrti-sastra.

(Vs. 1.3.23)


11.29.43-44

titiksur dvandva-matranam

susilah samyatendriyah

santah samahita-dhiya

jnana-vijnana-samyutah

 

matto 'nusiksitam yat te

viviktam anubhavayan

mayy avesita-vak-citto

mad-dharma-nirato bhava

ativrajya gatis tisro

mam esyasi tatah param

 

Thus you should remain content and free from desire, tolerant of all dualities, good-natured, self-controlled, peaceful and endowed with transcendental knowledge and realization. With fixed attention, meditate constantly upon these instructions I have imparted to you and assimilate their essense. Fix your words and thoughts upon Me, and always endeavor to increase your realization of My transcendental qualities. In this way you will cross beyond the destinations of the three modes of nature and finally come back to Me.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: He Who Is Measured By A Thumb Is Brahman.      

 

he who is said in scripture to stand with the height of a thumb within the heart is the supreme lord, not the individual soul.

(Vs. 1.3.24)

 

1.12.8

angustha-matram amalam

sphurat-purata-maulinam

apivya-darsanam syamam

tadid vasasam acyutam

 

He [the Lord] was only thumb high, but He was all transcendental. He had a very beautiful, blackish, infallible body, and He wore a dress of lightning yellow and a helmet of blazing gold. Thus He was seen by the child.

 

the comparison to a thumb is particularly given to help human beings meditate upon the supreme lord, because only human beings are capable of realizing the lord in this way.

(Vs. 1.3.25)

 

4.9.2

sa vai dhiya yoga-vipaka-tivraya

hrt-padma-kose sphuritam tadit-prabham

tirohitam sahasaivopalaksya

bahih-sthitam tad-avastham dadarsa

 

The form of the Lord, which was brilliant like lightning and in which Dhruva Maharaja, in his mature yogic process, was fully absorbed in meditation, all of a sudden disappeared. Thus Dhruva was perturbed, and his meditation broke. But as soon as he opened his eyes he saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead personally present, just as he had been seeing the Lord in his heart.

 

 


Adhikarana 7: The Devas Can Meditate Upon Brahman.         

 

the devas likewise meditate upon the supreme lord because they are his devotees and are not 'thought-forms of vedic mantras' as the karma-mimamsa philosphers believe.

(Vs. 1.3.26)

 

4.8.20

yasyanghri-padmam pa ricarya vina-

vibhavanayatta-gunabhipatteh

ajo 'dhyatis that khalu paramesthyam

padam jitatma-svasanabhivandyam

 

Suniti continued: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is so great that simply by worshiping His lotus feet, your great-grandfather, Lord Brahma, acquired the necessary qualifications to create this universe. Although he is unborn and is the chief of all living creatures, he is situated in that exalted post because of the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whom even great yogis worship by controlling the mind and regulating the life air [prana].

 

karma-mimamsa philosophers say it is impossible for the devas to be embodied beings because their presence is invoked at many sacrifices simultaneously. the mimamsakas are wrong, because the devas are empowered to receive sacrifice by the grace of the supreme lord dwelling in their hearts. thus may the devas manifest many forms simultaneously.

(Vs. 1.3.27)

 

7.8.42

sri-indra uvaca

pratyanitah parama bhavata trayata nah sva-bhaga

daityakrantam hrdaya-kamalam tad-grham pratyabodhi

kala-grastam kiyad idam aho natha susrusatam te

muktis tesam na hi bahumata narasimhaparaih kim

 

King Indra said: O Supreme Lord, You are our deliverer and protector. Our shares of sacrifices, which are actually Yours, have been recovered from the demon by You. Because the demoniac king Hiranyakasipu was most fearsome, our hearts, which are Your permanent abode, were all overtaken by him. Now, by Your presence, the gloom and darkness in our hearts have been dissipated. O Lord, for those who always engage in Your service, which is more exalted than liberation, all material opulence is insignificant. They do not even care for liberation, not to speak of the benefits of kama, artha and dharma.

 

10.14.33

esam tu bhagya-mahimacyuta tavad astam

ekadasaiva hi vayam bata bhuri-bhagah

etad-dhrsika-casakair asakrt pibamah

sarvadayo 'nghry-udaja-madhv-amrtasavam te

 

Yet even though the extent of the good fortune of these residents of Vrndavana is inconceivable, we eleven presiding deities of the various senses, headed by Lord Siva, are also most fortunate, because the senses of these devotees of Vrndavana are the cups through which we repeatedly drink the nectarean, intoxicating beverage of the honey of Your lotus feet.

 


karma-mimamsa philosophers reject the explanation of devas as embodied beings on the grounds that it contradicts the veda in which the names of the devas are found. they reason that if the veda is eternal, the devas must also be eternal since their forms are not different from their eternal names. but the mimamsakas are wrong, because the eternality of the names and forms given in the vedic hymns is seen in their connection to the eternal personality of godhead, not to the temporary material world. thus even though the embodied devas appear and disappear in time, their origin is the everpresent supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.3.28)

 

2.10.36

sa vacya-vacakataya

bhagavan brahma-rupa-dhrk

nama-rupa-kriya dhatte

sakarmakarmakah parah

 

He, the Personality of Godhead, manifests Himself in a transcendental form, being the subject of His transcendental name, quality, pastimes, entourage and transcendental variegatedness. Although He is unaffected by all such activities, He appears to be so engaged.

 

2.10.37-40

praja-patin manun devan

rsin pitr-ganan prthak

siddha-carana-gandha rvan

vidyadhrasu ra-guhya kan

 

kinnarapsaraso nagan

sarpan kimpurusan naran

matr raksah-pisacams ca

preta-bhuta-vinayakan

 

kusmandonmada-vetalan

yatudhanan grahan api

khagan mrgan pasun vrksan

girin nrpa sarisrpan

 

dvi-vidhas catur-vidha ye 'nye

jala-sthala-nabha ukasah

kusalakusala misrah

karmanam gatayas tv imah

 

O King, know from me that all living entities are created by the Supreme Lord according to their past deeds. This includes Brahma and his sons like Daksa, the periodical heads like Vaivasvata Manu, the demigods like Indra, Candra and Varuna, the great sages like Bhrgu, Vyasa and Vasistha, the inhabitants of Pitrloka and Siddhaloka, the Caranas, Gandharvas, Vidyadharas, Asuras, Yaksas, Kinnaras and angels, the serpentines, the monkey-shaped Kimpurusas, the human beings, the inhabitants of Matrloka, the demons, Pisacas, ghosts, spirits, lunatics and evil spirits, the good and evil stars, the goblins, the animals in the forest, the birds, the household animals, the reptiles, the mountains, the moving and standing living entities, the living entities born from embryos, from eggs, from perspiration and from seeds, and all others, whether they be in the water, land or sky, in happiness, in distress or in mixed happiness and distress. All of them, according to their past deeds, are created by the Supreme Lord.

 


the vedic sound is a potency of the supreme lord; thus it is eternal.

(Vs. 1.3.29)

 

8.7.25-26

tvam sabda-yonir jagad-adir atma

pranedriya-dravya-gunah svabhavah

kalah kratuh satyam rtam ca dharmas

tvayy aksaram yat tri-vrd-amananti

 

O lord, you are the original source of Vedic literature. You are the original cause of material creation, the life force, the senses, the five elements, the three modes and the mahat-tattva. You are eternal time, determination and the two religious systems called truth [satya] and truthfulness [rta]. You are the shelter of the syllable om, which consists of three letters a-u-m.

 

agnir mukham te 'khila-devatatma

ksitim vidur loka-bhavanghri-pankajam

kalam gatim te 'khila-devatatmano

disas ca karnau rasanam jalesam

 

O father of all planets, learned scholars know that fire is your mouth [and you are the source of all the demigods], the surface of the globe is your lotus feet, eternal time is your movement, all the directions are your ears, and Varuna, master of the waters, is your tongue.

 

8.7.29

mukhani pancopanisadas tavesa

yaistrimsad-astottara-mantra-vargah

yat tac chivakhyam paramatma-tattvam

deva svayam-jyotir avasthitis te

 

O lord, the five important Vedic mantras are represented by your five faces, from which the thirty-eight most celebrated Vedic mantras have been generated. Your Lordship, being celebrated as Lord Siva, is self-illuminated. You are directly situated as the supreme truth, known as Paramatma.

 

the supreme lord's instructions to brahma on his work of creation convey the same names and forms of the previous creation. thus they manifest again and again.

(Vs. 1.3.30)

 

2.9.38, 39

sri-suka uvaca

sampradisyaivam ajano

jananam paramesthinam

pasyatas tasya tad rupam

atmano nyarunad dharih

 

Sukadeva Gosvami said to Maharaja Pariksit: The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, after being seen in His transcendental form, instructing Brahmaji, the leader of the living entities, disappeared.

 

anta rhitendriyarthaya

haraye vihitanjalih

sarva-bhutamayo visvam

sasarjedam sa purvavat

 

On the disappearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who is the object of transcendental enjoyment for the senses of devotees, Brahma, with folded hands, began to re-create the universe, full with living entities, as it was previously.

 

sage jaimini (chief of the karma-mimamsa philosophers) says that the demigods have no reason to meditate on the vedic sound because they have attained all there is to attain by such meditation.

(Vs. 1.3.31)

 

6.3.25

prayena veda tad idam na mahajano 'yam

devya vimohita-matir bata mayayalam

trayyam jadi-krta-matir madhu-puspitayam

vaitanike mahati karmani yujyamanah

 

Because they are bewildered by the illusory energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Yajnavalkya and Jaimini and other compilers of the religious scriptures cannot know the secret, confidential religious system of the twelve mahajanas. They cannot understand the transcendental value of performing devotional service or chanting the Hare Krsna mantra. Because their minds are attracted to the ritualistic ceremonies mentioned in the Vedas—especially the Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Rg Veda—their intelligence has become dull. Thus they are busy collecting the ingredients for ritualistic ceremonies that yield only temporary benefits, such as elevation to Svargaloka for material happiness. They are not attracted to the sankirtana movement; instead, they are interested in dharma, artha, kama and moksa.

 

6.9.21, 22

sri-deva ucuh

vayv-ambaragny-ap-ksitayas tri-loka

brahmadayo ye vayam udvijantah

harama yasmai balim antako 'sau

bibheti yasmad aranam tato nah

 

The demigods said: The three worlds are created by the five elements—namely ether, air, fire, water and earth—which are controlled by various demigods, beginning from Lord Brahma. Being very much afraid that the time factor will end our existence, we offer presentations unto time by performing our work as time dictates. The time factor himself, however, is afraid of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore let us now worship that Supreme Lord, who  alone can give us full protection.

 

avismitam tam paripurna-kamam

svenaiva labhena samam prasantam

vinopasarpaty aparam hi balisah

sva-langulenatititarti sindhum

 

Free from all material conceptions of existence and never wonder-struck by anything, the Lord is always jubilant and fully satisfied by His own spiritual perfection. He has no material designations, and therefore He is steady and unattached. That Supreme Personality of Godhead is the only shelter of everyone. Anyone desiring to be protected by others is certainly a great fool who desires to cross the sea by holding the tail of a dog.

 

jaimini says the demigods meditate only upon the effulgence of the supreme personality of godhead who awards amrta—the nectar of immortality.

(Vs. 1.3.32)

 


10.14.23

ekas tvam atma purusah puranah

satyah svayam-jyotir ananta adyah

nityo 'ksaro 'jasra-sukho niranjanah

purnadvayo mukta upadhito 'mrtah

 

You are the one Supreme Soul, the primeval Supreme Personality, the Absolute Truth—self-manifested, endless and beginningless. You are eternal and infallible, perfect and complete, without any rival and free from all material designations. Your happiness can never be obstructed, nor have You any connection with material contamination. Indeed, You are the indestructible nectar of immortality.

 

10.63.34

sri-rudra uvaca

tvam hi brahma param jyotir

gudham brahmani van-maye

yam pasyanty amalatmana

akasam iva kevalam

 

Sri Rudra said: You alone are the Absolute Truth, the supreme light, the mystery hidden within the verbal manifestation of the Absolute. Those whose hearts are spotless can see You, for You are un-contaminated, like the sky.

 

srila vyasadeva declares that the devas meditate upon the supreme lord as the self of their selves (i.e. as the archtypical form of the demigods).

(Vs. 1.3.33)

 

10.63.43,44

aham brahmatha vibudha

munayas camalasayah

sarvatmana prapannas tvam

atmanam prestham isvaram

 

I, Lord Brahma, the other demigods and the pure minded sages have all surrendered wholeheartedly unto You, our dearmost Self and Lord.

 

tam tva jagat-sthity-udayanta-hetum

samam prasantam suhrd-atma-daivam

ananyam ekam jagad-atma-ketam

bhavapavargaya bhajama devam

 

Let us worship You, the Supreme Lord, to be freed from material life. You are the maintainer of the universe and cause of its creation and demise. Equipoised and perfectly at peace, You are the true friend, Self and worshipable Lord. You are one without a second, the shelter of all the worlds and all souls.

 

 

Adhikarana 8:

Sudras Are Not Qualified For Vedic Meditation.    

 

though meditation upon the supreme lord is the right of all human beings, study of the four vedas is forbidden to the sudras, though they may study the smrti-sastra.

(Vs. 1.3.34)

 


1.4.25

stri-sudra-dvijabandhunam

trayi na sruti-gocara

karma-sreyasi mudhanam

sreya evam bhaved iha

iti bharatam akhyanam

krpaya munina krtam

 

Out of compassion, the great sage thought it wise that this would enable men to achieve the ultimate goal of life. Thus he compiled the great historical narration called the Mahabharata for women, laborers and friends of the twice-born.

 

men with ksatriya qualities may study the vedas under brahmana teachers.

(Vs. 1.3.35)

 

4.16.16-18

drdha-vratah satya-sandho

brahmanyo vrddha-sevakah

saranyah sarva-bhutanam

manado dina-vatsalah

 

The King will be firmly determined and always situated in truth. He will be a lover of the brahminical culture and will render all service to old men and give shelter to all surrendered souls. Giving respect to all, he will always be merciful to the poor and innocent.

 

matr-bhaktih para-strisu

patnyam ardha ivatmanah

prajasu pitrvat snigdhah

kinkaro brahma-vadinam

 

The King will respect all women as if they were his own mother, and he will treat his own wife as the other half of his body. He will be just like an affectionate father to his citizens, and he will treat himself as the most obedient servant of the devotees, who always preach the glories of the Lord.

 

dehinam atmavat-presthah

suhrdam nandi-vardhanah

mukta-sanga-prasango 'yam

danda-panir asadhusu

 

The King will consider all embodied living entities as dear as his own self, and he will always be increasing the pleasures of his friends. He will intimately associate with liberated persons, and he will be a chastising hand to all impious pers ons.

 

According To Quality, Each Varna Is Known. A Sudra May Not Utter Vedic Mantras.

(Vs. 1.3.36)

 

7.11.14-15

viprasyadhyayanadini

sad-anyasyapratigrahah

rajno vrttih praja-goptur

aviprad va karadibhih

 

For a brahmana there are six occupational duties. A ksatriya should not accept charity, but he may perform the other five of these duties. A king or ksatriya is not allowed to levy taxes on brahmanas, but he may make his livelihood by levying minimal taxes, customs duties, and penalty fines upon his other subjects.

 

vaisyas tu varta-vrttih syan

nityam brahma-kulanugah

sudrasya dvija-susrusa

vrttis ca svamino bhavet

 

The mercantile community should always follow the directions of the brahmanas and engage in such occupational duties as agriculture, trade, and protection of cows. For the sudras the only duty is to accept a master from a higher social order and engage in his service.

 

7.11.21-24

samo damas tapah saucam

santosah ksantir arjavam

jnanam dayacyutatmatvam

satyam ca brahma-laksanam

 

The symptoms of a brahmana are control of the mind, control of the senses, austerity and penance, cleanliness, satisfaction, forgiveness, simplicity, knowledge, mercy, truthfulness, and complete surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

sauryam viryam dhrtis tejas

tyagas catmajayah ksama

brahmanyata prasadas ca

satyam ca ksatra-laksanam

 

To be influential in battle, unconquerable, patient, challenging and charitable, to control the bodily necessities, to be forgiving, to be attached to the brahminical nature and to be always jolly and truthful—these are the symptoms of the ksat riya.

 

deva-gurv-acyute bhaktis

tri-varga-pariposanam

astikyam udyamo nityam

naipunyam vaisya-laksanam

 

Being always devoted to the demigods, the spiritual master and the Supreme Lord, Visnu; endeavoring for advancement in religious principles, economic development and sense gratification [dharma, artha and kama]; believing in the words of the spi ritual master and scripture; and always endeavoring with expertise in earning money—these are the symptoms of the vaisya.

 

sudrasya sannatih saucam

seva svaminy amayaya

amantra-yajno hy asteyam

satyam go-vipra-raksanam

 

Offering obeisances to the higher sections of society [the brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas], being always very clean, being free from duplicity, serving one's master, performing sacrifices without uttering mantras, not stealing, always speaking the truth and giving all protection to the cows and brahmanas—these are the symptoms of the sudra.

 

sudras may not become students of the vedas; therefore srila vyasadeva compassionately compiled the mahabharata for their study.

(Vs. 1.3.37)

 


1.4.25.

stri-sudra-dvijabandhunam

trayi na sruti-gocara

karma-sreyasi mudhanam

sreya evam bhaved iha

iti bharatam akhyanam

krpaya munina krtam

 

Out of compassion, the great sage thought it wise that this would enable men to achieve the ultimate goal of life. Thus he compiled the great historical narration called the Mahabharata for women, laborers and friends of the twice-born.

 

sudras are prevented from recitation of the vedas by their qualities. all living entities are awarded their qualities and work by the master plan of creation.

(Vs. 1.3.38)

 

3.6.29-33

tartiyena svabhavena

bhagavan-nabhim asritah

ubhayor antaram vyoma

ye rudra-parsadam ganah

 

Living entities who are associates of Rudra develop in the third mode of material nature, or ignorance. They are situated in the sky between the earthly planets and the heavenly planets.

 

mukhato 'vartata brahma

purusasya kurudvaha

yas tanmukhatvad varnanam

mukhyo 'bhud brahmano guruh

 

O chief of the Kuru dynasty, the Vedic wisdom became manifested from the mouth of the virat, the gigantic form. Those who are inclined to this Vedic knowledge are called brahmanas, and they are the natural teachers and spiritual masters of all the orders of society.

 

bahubhyo 'vartata ksatram

ksatriyas tad anuvratah

yo jatas trayate vaman

paurusah kantaka-ksatat

 

Thereafter the power of protection was generated from the arms of the gigantic virat form, and in relation to such power the ksatriyas also came into existence by following the ksatriya principle of protecting society from the disturbance of thi eves and miscreants.

 

viso 'vartanta tasyorvor

loka-vrttikarir vibhoh

vaisyas tad-udbhavo vartam

nmam yah samavartayat

 

The means of livelihood of all persons, namely production of grains and their distribution to the prajas, was generated from the thighs of the Lord's gigantic form. The mercantile men who take charge of such execution are called vaisyas.

 

padbhyam bhagavato jajne

susrusa dharma-siddhaye

tasyam jatah pura sudro

yad-vrttya tusyate harih

 

Thereafter, service was manifested from the legs of the Personality of Godhead for the sake of perfecting the religious function. Situated on the legs are the sudras, who satisfy the Lord by service.

 

 

Adhikarana 9:

The Thunderbolt In The Katha Upanisad 2.3.2 Is Brahman.

 

because the whole universe trembles in fear of the supreme lord who regulates all living entities, he is called vajra (the thunderbolt).

(Vs. 1.3.39)

 

6.10.13-14

athendro vajram udyamya

nirmitam visvakarmana

muneh saktibhir utsikto

bhagavat-tejasanvitah

 

vrto deva-ganaih sarvair

gajendropary asobhata

stuyamano muni-ganais

trailokyam harsayann iva

 

Thereafter, King Indra very firmly took up the thunderbolt manufactured by Visvakarma from the bones of Dadhici. Charged with the exalted power of Dadhici Muni and enlightened by the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Indra rode on the back of his carrier, Airavata, surrounded by all the demigods, while all the great sages offered him praise. Thus he shone very beautifully, pleasing the three worlds as he rode off to kill Vrtrasura.

 

6.8.32

yathaikatmyanubhavanam

vikalpa-rahitah svayam

bhusanayudha-lingakhya

dhatte saktih sva-mayaya

 

tenaiva satya-manena

sarva jno bhagavan harih

patu samaih svarupair nah

sada sarvatra sarva-gah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the living entities, the material energy, the spiritual energy and the entire creation are all individual substances. In the ultimate analysis, however, together they constitute the supreme one, the Personality of Godhead. Therefore those who are advanced in spiritual knowledge see unity in diversity. For such advanced persons, the Lord's bodily decorations, His name, His fame, His attributes and forms and the weapons in His hand are manifestations of the strength of His potency. According to their elevated spiritual understanding, the omniscient Lord, who manifests various forms, is present everywhere. May He always protect us everywhere from all calamities.

 

6.12.10

yatha darumayi nari

yatha patramayo mrgah

evam bhutani maghavann

isa-tantrani viddhi bhoh

 

O King Indra, as a wooden doll that looks like a woman or as an animal made of grass and leaves cannot move or dance independently, but depends fully on the person who handles it, all of us dance according to the desire of the supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead. No one is independent.

 

6.12.8

lokah sapala yasyeme

svasanti vivasa vase

dvija iva sica baddhah

sa kala iha karanam

 

All living beings in all the planets of this universe, including the presiding deities of all the planets, are fully under the control of the Lord. They work like birds caught in a net, who cannot move independently.

 

the supreme lord is called vajra because of his powerful effulgence.

(Vs. 1.3.40)

 

6.11.20

nanv esa vajras tava sakra tejasa

harer dadhices tapasa ca tejitah

tenaiva satrum jahi visnu-yantrito

yato harir vijayah srir gunas tatah

 

O Indra, King of heaven, the thunderbolt you carry to kill me has been empowered by the prowess of Lord Visnu and the strength of Dadhici's austerities. Since you have come here to kill me in accordance with Lord Visnu's order, there is no doubt that I shall be killed by the release of your thunderbolt. Lord Visnu has sided with you. Therefore your victory, opulence and all good qualities are assured.

 

10.3.24

sri-devaky uvaca

rupam yat tat prahur avyaktam adyam

brahma jyotir nirgunam nirvikaram

satta-matram nirvisesam niriham

sa tvam saksad visnur adhyatma-dipah

 

Sri Devaki said: My dear Lord, there are different Vedas, some of which describe You as unperceivable through words and the mind. Yet You are the origin of the entire cosmic manifestation. You are Brahman, the greatest of everything, full of effulgence like the sun. You have no material cause, You are free from change and deviation, and You have no material desires. Thus the Vedas say that You are the substance. Therefore, my Lord, You are directly the origin of all Vedic statements, and by understanding You, one gradually understands everything. You are different from the light of Brahman and Paramatma, yet You are not different from them. Everything emanates from You. Indeed, You are the cause of all causes, Lord Visnu, the light of all transcendental knowledge.

 

 

Adhikarana 10:

The 'Akasa' In Chhandogya Upanisad 8.14.1 Is Brahman.

 

the chandogya upanisad states that names and forms evolve from 'akasa'; this akasa is the supreme lord himself, and not the jiva who is subject to names and forms in his conditioned state and who is released from them in his liberated state.

(Vs. 1.3.41)

 


6.16.21

vacasy uparate 'prapya

ya eko manasa saha

anama-rupas cin-matrah

so 'vyan nah sad-asat-parah

 

The words and mind of the conditioned soul cannot approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for material names and forms are not applicable to the Lord, who is entirely spiritual, beyond the conception of gross and subtle forms. The impersonal Brahman is another of His forms. May He, by His pleasure, protect us.

 

6.16.23

yan na sprsanti na vidur

mano-buddhindriyasavah

antar bahis ca vitatam

vyomavat tan nato 'smy aham

 

The Supreme Brahman emanates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and expands like the sky. Although untouched by anything material, it exists within and without. Nonetheless, the mind, intelligence, senses and living force can neither touch Him nor know Him. I offer unto Him my respectful obeisances.

 

 

Adhikarana 11:

At Both The Time Of Dreamless Sleep And The Time

Of The Jiva's Liberation From The Material World,

The Jiva And The Supreme Brahman Are Different.                    

 

the upanisads declare the supreme lord to be different from the jiva, even during deep sleep (susupti) or at the time of liberation.

(Vs. 1.3.42)

 

11.3.39-40

andesu pesisu tarusu aviniscitesu

prano hi jivam upadhavati tatra tatra

sanne yad indriya-gane 'hami ca prasupte

kuta-stha asayam rte tad-anusmrtir nah

 

The spirit soul is born in many different species of life within the material world. Some species are born from eggs, other from embryos, others from the seeds of plants and trees, and others from perspiration. But in all species of life the prana, or vital air, remains unchanging and follows the spirit soul from one body to another. Similarly, the spirit soul is eternally the same despite its material condition of life. We have practical experience of this. When we are absorbed in deep sleep without dreaming, the material senses become inactive, and even the mind and false ego are merged in a dormant condition. But although the senses, mind and false ego are inactive, one remembers upon waking that he, the soul, was peacefully sleeping.

 

yarhy abja-nabha-caranisanayoru-bhaktya

ceto-malani vidhamed guna-karma-jani

tasmin visuddha upalabhyata atma-tattvam

saksad yathamala-drsoh savitr-prakasah

 


When one seriously engages in the devotional service of the Personality of Godhead, fixing the Lord's lotus feet within one's heart as the only goal of life, one can destroy the innumerable impure desires lodged within the heart as a result of one's previous fruitive work within the three modes of material nature. When the heart is thus purified one can directly perceive both the Supreme Lord and one's self as transcendental entities. Thus one becomes perfect in spiritual understanding through direct experience, just as one can directly experience the sunshine through normal, healthy vision.

 

the liberated soul cannot be identical with the supreme lord, who is the pati (master of all living entities).

(Vs. 1.3.43)

 

7.3.29

tvam iise jagatas tasthusas ca

pranena mukhyena patih prajanam

cittasya cittair mana-indriyanam

patir mahan bhuta-gunasayesah

 

Your Lordship, being the origin of the life of this material world, is the master and controller of the living entities, both moving and stationary, and you inspire their consciousness. You maintain the mind and the acting and knowledge-acquiring senses, and therefore you are the great controller of all the material elements and their qualities, and you are the controller of all desires.

 

7.3.31

tvam eva kalo 'nimiso jananam

ayur lavady-avayavaih ksinosi

kuta-stha atma paramesthy ajo mahams

tvam jiva-lokasya ca jiva atma

 

O my lord, Your Lordship is eternally awake, seeing everything that happens. As eternal time, you reduce the duration of life for all living entities through your different parts, such as moments, seconds, minutes and hours. Nonetheless, you are unchanged, resting in one place as the Supersoul, witness and Supreme Lord, the birthless, all-pervading controller who is the cause of life for all living entities.

 

 

z

 


CHAPTER FOUR

 [Vedanta-sutra Reference: First Adhyaya, Pada Four]

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter Four •

 

1. The word 'Avyakta' in Katha Upanisad 1.3.11 refers to the subtle body and not pradhana.

2. The 'Aja' of Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.5 does not mean pradhana.

3. The phrase 'panca-panca-janah' in Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 4.4.7 does not refer to the 25 elements of atheistic Sankhya philosophy.

4. Brahman is the only original cause.

5. The Purusa of the Kausitaki Upanisad is Brahman.

6. The 'Atma' of Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 4.5. is the Supreme Brahman and not the jiva.

7. Brahman is both the efficient and material cause.

8. All names are names of Brahman.

 

 

Adhikarana 1:

The Word 'Avyakta' In Katha Upanisad 1.3.11

Refers To The Subtle Body And Not Pradhana.                 

 

the word 'avyakta' refers to the body and not pradhana (as the atheistic sankhya philosophers argue). this passage compares the body to a chariot.

(Vs. 1.4.1.)

 

7.15.41, 42, 45

ahuh sariram ratham indriyani

hayan abhisun mana indriyesam

vartmani matra dhisanam ca sutam

sattvam brhad bandhuram isa-srstam

 

Transcendentalists who are advanced in knowledge compare the body, which is made by the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, to a chariot. The senses are like the horses; the mind, the master of the senses, is like the reins; the objects of the senses are the destinations; intelligence is the chariot driver; and consciousness, which spreads throughout the body, is the cause of bondage in this material world.

 

aksam dasa-pranam adharma-dhamaau

cakre 'bhimanam rathinam ca jivam

dhanur hi tasya pranavam pathanti

saram tu jivam param eva laksyam

 

The ten kinds of air acting within the body are compared to the spokes of the chariot's wheels, and the top and bottom of the wheel itself are called religion and irreligion. The living entity in the bodily concept of life is the owner of the chariot. The Vedic mantra pranava is the bow, the pure living entity himself is the arrow, and the target is the Supreme Being.

 

yavan nr-kaya-ratham atma-vasopakalpam

dhatte garistha-caranarcanaya nisatam

jnanasim acyuta-balo dadhad asta-satruh

svananda-tusta upasanta idam vijahyat

 


As long as one has to accept a material body, with its different parts and paraphernalia, which are not fully under one's control, one must have the lotus feet of his superiors, namely his spiritual master and the spiritual master's predecessors. By their mercy, one can sharpen the sword of knowledge, and with the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's mercy one must then conquer the enemies mentioned above. In this way, the devotee should be able to merge into his own transcendental bliss, and then he may give up his body and resume his spiritual identity.

 

the body termed 'avyakta' (unmanifest) is subtle.

(Vs. 1.4.2)

 

1.3.32

atah param yad avyaktam

avyudha-guna-brmhitam

adrstasruta-vastutvat

sa jivo yat punar-bhavah

 

Beyond this gross conception of form is another, subtle conception of form which is without formal shape and is unseen, unheard and unmanifest. The living being has his form beyond this subtlety, otherwise he could not have repeated births.

 

12.5.8

na tatratma svayam-jyotir

yo vyaktavyaktayoh parah

akasa iva cadharo

dhruvo 'nantopamas tatah

 

The soul within the body is self-luminous and is separate from the visible gross body and invisible subtle body. It remains as the fixed basis of changing bodily existence, just as the ethereal sky is the unchanging background of material transformation. Therefore the soul is endless and without material comparison.

 

by their interpretation of the term avyakta, the atheistic sankhya philosophers wish to prove pradhana to be the independent cause of creation; but she is dependent upon the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.4.3)

 

1.10.22

sa eva bhuyo nija-virya-coditam

sva-jiva-mayam prakrtim sisrksatim

anama-rupatmani rupa-namani

vidhitsamano 'nusasara sastra-krt

 

The Personality of Godhead, again desiring to give names and forms to His parts and parcels, the living entities, placed them under the guidance of material nature. By His own potency, material nature is empowered to re-create.

 

according to vedanta, pradhana is material nature in the unmanifest state; it therefore cannot be an object of knowledge. but the atheistic sankhya philosophers take pradhana to be knowable. therefore their conception of pradhana is altogether different from the vedic explanation.

(Vs. 1.4.4)

 

3.26.10

sri-bhagavan uvaca

yat tat tri-gunam avyaktam

nityam sad-asad-atmakam

pradhanam prakrtim prahur

avisesam visesavat

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: The unmanifested eternal combination of the three modes is the cause of the manifest state and is called pradhana. It is called prakrti when in the manifested stage of existence.

 

12.4.20-21

na yatra vaco na mano na sattvam

tamo rajo va mahad-adayo 'mi

na prana-buddhindriya-devata va

na sannivesah khalu loka-kalpah

 

na svapna-jagram na ca tat susuptam

na kham jalam bhur anilo 'gnir arkah

samsupta-vac chunya-vad apratarkyam

tan mula-bhutam padam amananti

 

In the unmanifest stage of material nature, called pradhana, there is no expression of words, no mind and no manifestation of the subtle elements beginning from the mahat, nor are there the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. There is no life air or intelligence, nor any senses or demigods. There is no definite arrangement of planetary systems, nor are there present the different stages of consciousness— sleep, wakefulness and deep sleep. There is no ether, water, earth, air, fire or sun. The situation is just like that of complete sleep, or of voidness. Indeed, it is indescribable. Authorities in spiritual science explain, however, that since pradhana is the original substance, it is the actual basis of material creation.

 

beyond the unknown pradhana is the ultimate object of knowledge, the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.4.5)

 

5.11.13,14

ksetrajna atma purusah puranah

saksat svayam jyotir ajah paresah

narayano bhagavan vasudevah

sva-mayayatmany avadhiyamanah

 

yathanilah sthavara jangamanam

atma-svarupena nivista iset

evam paro bhagavan vasudevah

ksetrajna atmedam anupravistah

 

There are two kinds of ksetrajna—the living entity, as explained above, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is explained as follows. He is the all-pervading cause of creation. He is full in Himself and is not dependent on others. He is perceived by hearing and direct perception. He is self-effulgent and does not experience birth, death, old age or disease. He is the controller of all the demigods, beginning with Lord Brahma. He is called Narayana, and He is the shelter of living entities after the annihilation of this material world. He is full of all opulences, and He is the resting place of everything material. He is therefore known as Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By His own potency, He is present within the hearts of all living entities, just as the air or vital force is within the bodies of all beings, moving and nonmoving. In this way He controls the body. In His partial feature, the Supreme Personality of Godhead enters all bodies and controls them.

 

beyond the attainments of worldly happiness, heaven, and even knowledge of the self, the supreme lord is to be known.

(Vs. 1.4.6)

 


7.6.20-26

paravaresu bhutesu

brahmanta-sthavaradisu

bhautikesu vikaresu

bhutesv atha mahatsu ca

 

gunesu guna-samye ca

guna-vyatikare tatha-

eka eva paro hy atma

bhagavan isvaro 'vyayah

 

pratyag-atma-svarupena

drsya-rupena ca svayam

vyapya-vyapaka-nirdesyo

hy anirdesyo 'vikalpitah

 

kevalanubhavananda-

svarupah paramesvarah

mayayantarhitaisvarya

iyate guna-sargaya

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, who is infallible and indefatigable, is present in different forms of life, from the inert living beings [sthavara], such as the plants, to Brahma, the foremost created living being. He is also present in the varieties of material creations and in the material elements, the total material energy and the modes of material nature [sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna], as well as the unmanifested material nature and the false ego. Although He is one, He is present everywhere, and He is also the transcendental Supersoul, the cause of all causes, who is present as the observer in the cores of the hearts of all living entities. He is indicated as that which is pervaded and as the all-pervading Supersoul, but actually He cannot be indicated. He is changeless and undivided. He is simply perceived as the supreme sac-cid-ananda [eternity, knowledge and bliss]. Being covered by the curtain of the external energy, to the atheist He appears nonexistent.

 

tasmat sarvesu bhutesu

dayam kuruta sauhrdam

bhavam asuram unmucya

yaya tusyaty adhoksajah

 

Therefore, my dear young friends born of demons, please act in such a way that the Supreme Lord, who is beyond the conception of material knowledge, will be satisfied. Give up your demoniac nature and act without enmity or duality. Show mercy to all living entities by enlightening them in devotional service, thus becoming their well-wishers.

 

tuste ca tatra kim alabhyam ananta adye

kim tair guna-vyatikarad iha ye sva-siddhah

dharmadayah kim agunena ca kanksitena

saram jusam caranayor upagayatam nah

 

Nothing is unobtainable for devotees who have satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes, the original source of everything. The Lord is the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities. For devotees, therefore, who are transcendental to the modes of material nature, what is the use of following the principles of religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation, which are all automatically obtainable under the influence of the modes of nature? We devotees always glorify the lotus feet of the Lord, and therefore we need not ask for anything in terms of dharma, kama, artha and moksa.

 

dharmartha-kama iti yo 'bhihitas tri-varga

iksa trayi naya-damau vividha ca varta

manye tad etad akhilam nigamasya satyam

svatmarpanam sva-suhrdah paramasya pumsah

 

Religion, economic development and sense gratification—these are described in the Vedas as tri-varga, or three ways to salvation. Within these three categories are education and self-realization; ritualistic ceremonies performed according to Vedic injunction; logic; the science of law and order; and the various means of earning one's livelihood. These are the external subject matters of study in the Vedas, and therefore I consider them material. However, I consider surrender to the lotus feet of Lord Visnu to be transcendental.

 

the word 'mahan' (as in the kathopanisad, 'atma mahan') does not mean the 'mahat' or mahat-tattva of the atheistic sankhya philosophy. it means the conditioned living entity (jiva). the word 'avyakta' denotes the subtle cause of the jiva's gross state of manifestation.

(Vs. 1.4.7)

11.3.37

sattvam rajas tama iti tri-vrd ekam adau

sutram mahan aham iti pravadanti jivam

jnana-kriyartha-phala-rupatayoru-sakti

brahmaiva bhati sad asac ca tayoh param yat

 

Originally one, the Absolute, Brahman, comes to be known as threefold, manifesting itself as the three modes of material nature—goodness, passion and ignorance. Brahman further expands its potency, and thus the power to act and the power of consciousness become manifest, along with the false ego, which covers the identity of the conditioned living being. Thus, by the expansion of the multipotencies of the Absolute, the demigods, as the embodiment of knowledge, become manifest, along with the material senses, their objects and the results of material activity, namely happiness and distress. In this way the manifestation of the material world takes place as the subtle cause and as the material effect visible in the appearance of gross material objects. Brahman, which is the source of all subtle and gross manifestations, is simultaneously transcendental to them, being absolute.

 

 

Adhikarana 2:

The 'Aja' Of Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.5 Does Not Mean Pradhana.                             

 

material nature is not independent, though philosophers bewildered by her three modes argue that she is because she is 'aja' (unborn).

(Vs. 1.4.8)

10.87.31

na ghatata udbhavah prakrti-purusayor ajayor

ubhaya-yuja bhavanty asu-bhrto jala-budbuda-vat

tvayi ta ime tato vividha-nama-gunaih parame

sarita ivarnave madhuni lilyur asesa-rasah

 

Neither material nature nor the soul who tries to enjoy her are ever born, yet living bodies come into being when these two combine, just as bubbles form where water meets the air. And just as rivers merge into the ocean or the nectar from many different flowers blends into honey, so all these conditioned beings eventually merge back into You, the Supreme, along with their various names and qualities.

 

2.10.45

nasya karmani janmadau

parasyanuvidhiyate

kartrtva-pratisedhartham

mayayaropitam hi tat

 

There is no direct engineering by the Lord for the creation and destruction of the material world. What is described in the Vedas about His direct interference is simply to counteract the idea that material nature is the creator.

 

3.26.4, 5

sa esa prakrtim suksmam

daivim gunamayim vibhuh

yadrcchayaivopagatam

abhyapadyata lilaya

 

As His pastime, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, the greatest of the great, accepted the subtle material energy, which is invested with three material modes of nature and which is related with Visnu.

 

gunair vicitrah srjatim

sa-rupah prakrtim prajah

vilokya mumuhe sadyah

sa iha jnana-guhaya

 

Divided into varieties by her threefold modes, material nature creates the forms of the living entities, and the living entities, seeing this, are illusioned by the knowledge-covering feature of the illusory energy.

 

material nature is jyotir-upakrama (she who has her beginning in light, i.e. the brahman effulgence). in this way she is understood to be aja, unborn. material nature is the sakti of the supreme lord and is not independent as the atheistic sankhya philosophers think she is. the jyoti from which she appears is the  effulgence of the supreme personality of godehad.

(Vs. 1.4.9)

 

3.26.3,4

anadir atma puruso

nirgunah prakrteh parah

pratyag-dhama svayam-jyotir

visvam yena samanvitam

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supreme Soul, and He has no beginning. He is transcendental to the material modes of nature and beyond the existence of this material world. He is perceivable everywhere because He is self-effulgent, and by His self-effulgent luster the entire creation is maintained.

 

sa esa prakrtim suksmam

daivim gunamayim vibhuh

yadrcchayaivopagatam

abhyapadyata lilaya

 

As His pastime, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, the greatest of the great, accepted the subtle material energy, which is invested with three material modes of nature and which is related with Visnu.

 

4.9.16

yasmin viruddha-gatayo hy anisam patanti

vidyadayo vividha-saktaya anupurvyat

tad brahma visva-bhavam ekam anantam adyam

ananda-matram avikaram aham prapadye

 

My dear Lord, in Your impersonal manifestation of Brahman there are always two opposing elements—knowledge and ignorance. Your multienergies are continually manifest, but the impersonal Brahman, which is undivided, original, changeless, unlimited and blissful, is the cause of the material manifestation. Because You are the same impersonal Brahman, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 


as the sun exists in a two-fold state (in oneness as the self-effulgent solar disk and in difference as madhu, nectar enjoyed by the devas), so is prakrti simultaneously 1) the cause of the material manifestation and 2) the manifest material world.

(Vs. 1.4.10)

 

3.5.25

sa va etasya samdrastuh

saktih sad-asad-atmika-

maya nama maha-bhaga

yayedam nirmame vibhuh

 

The Lord is the seer, and the external energy, which is seen, works as both cause and effect in the cosmic manifestation. O greatly fortunate Vidura, this external energy is known as maya or illusion, and through her agency only is the entire material manifestation made possible.

 

3.28.44

tasmad imam svam prakrtim

daivim sad-asad-atmikam

durvibhavyam parabhavya

svarupenavatisthate

 

Thus the yogi can be in the self-realized position after conquering the insurmountable spell of maya, who presents herself as both the cause and effect of this material manifestation and is therefore very difficult to understand.

 

 

Adhikarana 3:

The Phrase 'Panca-Panca-Janah' In Brhad-Aranyaka Upanisad 4.4.7

Does Not Refer To The 25 Elements Of Atheistic Sankhya Philosophy.                            

 

the method the atheistic sankhya philosophers use to count the elements of material nature is no proof of their arguments.

(Vs. 1.4.11)

 

5.18.33

yasminn asankhyeya-visesa-nama-

rupakrtau kavibhih kalpiteyam

sankhya yaya tattva-drsapaniyate

tasmai namah sankhya-nidarsanaya te iti

 

O my Lord, Your name, form and bodily features are expanded in countless forms. No one can determine exactly how many forms exist, yet You Yourself, in Your incarnation as the learned scholar Kapiladeva, have analyzed the cosmic manifestation as containing twenty-four elements. Therefore if one is interested in Sankhya philosophy, by which one can enumerate the different truths, he must hear it from You. Unfortunately, nondevotees simply count the different elements and remain ignorant of Your actual form. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 

11.22.2-4

sri-uddhava uvaca

kati tattvani visvesa

sankhyatany rsibhih prabho

navaikadasa panca triny

attha tvam iha susruma

 


kecit sad-vimsatim prahur

apare panca-vimsatim

saptaike nava sat kecic

catvary ekadasapare

kecit satadasa prahuh

sodasaike trayodasa

 

etavattvam hi sankhyanam

rsayo yad-vivaksaya

gayanti prthag ayusmann

idam no vaktum arhasi

 

Uddhava inquired: My dear Lord, O master of the universe, how many different elements of creation have been enumerated by the great sage? I have heard You personally describe a total of twenty-eight—God, the jiva soul, the mahat-tattva, false ego, the five gross elements, the ten senses, the mind, the five subtle objects of perception and the

three modes of nature. But some authorities say that there are twenty-six elements, while others cite twenty-five or else seven, nine, six, four or eleven, and even others say that there are seventeen, sixteen or thirteen. What did each of these sages have in mind when he calculated the creative elements in such different ways? O supreme eternal, kindly explain this to me.

 

sri-bhagavan uvaca

yuktam ca santi sarvatra

bhasante brahmana yatha

mayam madiyam udgrhya

vadatam kim nu durghatam

 

Lord Krsna replied: Because all material elements are present everywhere, it is reasonable that different learned brahmanas have analyzed them in different ways. All such philosophers spoke under the shelter of My mystic potency, and thus they could say anything without contradicting the truth.

 

3.26.12

maha-bhutani pancaiva

bhur apo 'gnir marun nabhah

tan-matrani ca tavanti

gandhadini matani me

 

There are five gross elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and ether. There are also five subtle elements: smell, taste, color, touch and sound.

 

3.26.14-15

mano buddhir ahankaras

cittam ity antar-atmakam

caturdha laksyate bhedo

vrttya laksana-rupaya

 

The internal, subtle senses are experienced as having four aspects, in the shape of mind, intelligence, ego and contaminated consciousness. Distinctions between them can be made only by different functions, since they represent different characteristics.

 

etavan eva sankhyato

brahmanah sa-gunasya ha

sanniveso maya prokto

yah kalah panca-vimsakah

 

All these are considered the qualified Brahman. The mixing element, which is known as time, is counted as the twenty-fifth element.

 

the supreme lord's personal form is the basis of creation. therefore he is the breath of the breath, the eye of the eye, the ear of the ear, etc. the lord knows everything about the activities and enjoyments of the senses of living beings everywhere. he illuminates the entire world.

(Vs. 1.4.12-13)

 

4.24.63,64

tvam eka adyah purusah supta-saktis

taya rajah-sattva-tamo vibhidyate

mahan aham kham marud agni-var-dharah

surarsayo bhuta-gana idam yatah

 

My dear Lord, You are the only Supreme Person, the cause of all causes. Before the creation of this material world, Your material energy remains in a dormant condition. When Your material energy is agitated, the three qualities—namely goodness, passion and ignorance—act, and as a result the total material energy—egotism, ether, air, fire, water, earth and all the various demigods and saintly persons—becomes manifest. Thus the material world is created.

 

srstam sva-saktyedam anupravistas

catur-vidham puram atmamsakena

atho vidus tam purusam santam antar

bhunkte hrsikair madhu sara-gham yah

 

My dear Lord, after creating by Your own potencies, You enter within the creation in four kinds of forms. Being within the hearts of the living entities, You know them and know how they are enjoying their senses. The so-called happiness of this material creation is exactly like the bees' enjoyment of honey after it has been collected in the honeycomb.

 

3.25.9

ya adyo bhagavan pumsam

isvaro vai bhavan kila

lokasya tamasandhasya

caksuh surya ivoditah

 

You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the origin and Supreme Lord of all living entities. You have arisen to disseminate the rays of the sun in order to dissipate the darkness of the ignorance of the universe.

 

 

Adhikarana 4: Brahman Is The Only Original Cause.         

 

brahman is the cause of the universe.

(Vs. 1.4.14)

 

4.24.60

yatredam vyajyate visvam

visvasminn avabhati yat

tat tvam brahma param jyotir

akasam iva vistrtam

 

My dear Lord, the impersonal Brahman spreads everywhere, like the sunshine or the sky. And that impersonal Brahman, which spreads throughout the universe and in which the entire universe is manifested, is You.

 

the supreme lord is also nonmanifestation and nonexistence.

(Vs. 1.4.15)

 

8.12.5

ady-antav asya yan madhyam

idam anyad aham bahih

yato 'vyayasya naitani

tat satyam brahma cid bhavan

 

The manifest, the unmanifest, false ego and the beginning, maintenance and annihilation of this cosmic manifestation all come from You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But because You are the Absolute Truth, the supreme absolute spirit soul, the Supreme Brahman, such changes as birth, death and sustenance do not exist in You.

 

 

Adhikarana 5:

The Purusa Of The Kausitaki Upanisad Is Brahman.   

 

'brahman is the cause of the universe' does not refer to the jiva-atma (individual soul).

(Vs. 1.4.16-17)

 

10.87.50

yo 'syotpreksaka adi-madhya-nidhane yo 'vyakta-jivesvaro

yah srstvedam anupravisya rsina cakre purah sasti tah

yam sampadya jahaty ajam anusayi suptah kulayam yatha

tam kaivalya-nirasta-yonim abhayam dhyayed ajasram harim

 

He is the Lord who eternally watches over this universe, who exists before, during and after its manifestation. He is the master of both the unmanifest material energy and the spirit soul. After sending forth the creation He enters within it, accompanying each living entity. There He creates the material bodies and then remains as their regulator. By surrendering to Him one can escape the embrace of illusion, just as a dreaming person forgets his own body. One who wants liberation from fear should constantly meditate upon Him, Lord Hari, who is always on the platform of perfection and thus never subject to material birth.

 

the knowledge of the jiva is maintained during sleep and wakefulness by the supreme lord, who is the eternally awake supreme brahman.

(Vs. 1.4.18)

 

3.26.71

yatha prasuptam purusam

pranendriya-mano-dhiyah

prabhavanti vina yena

notthapayitum ojasa

 

When a man is sleeping, all his material assets—namely the vital energy, the senses for recording knowledge, the senses for working, the mind and the intelligence—cannot arouse him. He can be aroused only when the Supersoul helps him.

 

6.16.56

ubhayam smaratah pumsah

prasvapa-pratibodhayoh

anveti vyatiricyeta

taj jnanam brahma tat param

 

If one's dreams during sleep are merely subject matters witnessed by the Supersoul, how can the living entity, who is different from the Supersoul, remember the activities of dreams? The experiences of one person cannot be understood by another. Therefore the knower of the facts, the living entity who inquires into the incidents manifested in dreams and wakefulness, is different from the circumstantial activities. That knowing factor is Brahman. In other words, the quality of knowing belongs to the living entities and to the Supreme Soul. Thus the living entity can also experience the activities of dreams and wakefulness. In both stages the knower is unchanged, but is qualitatively one with the Supreme Brahman.

 

7.3.31

tvam eva kalo 'nimiso jananam

ayur lavady-avayavaih ksinosi

kuta-stha atma paramesthy ajo mahams

tvam jiva-lokasya ca jiva atma

 

O my lord, Your Lordship is eternally awake, seeing everything that happens. As eternal time, you reduce the duration of life for all living entities through your different parts, such as moments, seconds, minutes and hours. Nonetheless, you are unchanged, resting in one place as the Supersoul, witness and Supreme Lord, the birthless, all-pervading controller who is the cause of life for all living entities.

 

 

Adhikarana 6:

The 'Atma' Of Brhad-Aranyaka Upanisad 4.5.

Is The Supreme Brahman And Not The Jiva.                 

 

by knowledge of the supreme lord, all that there is to know within the universe may be known; not so by knowledge of the individual soul alone.

(Vs. 1.4.19)

 

2.5.35

sa eva purusas tasmad

andam nirbhidya nirgatah

sahasrorv-anghri-bahv-aksah

sahasranana-sirsavan

 

The Lord [Maha-Visnu], although lying in the Causal Ocean, came out of it, and dividing Himself as Hiranyagarbha, He entered into each universe and assumed the virat-rupa, with thousands of legs, arms, mouths, heads, etc.

 

7.3.34

anantavyakta-rupena

yenedam akhilam tatam

cid-acic-chakti-yuktaya

tasmai bhagavate namah

 

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme, who in his unlimited, unmanifested form has expanded the cosmic manifestation, the form of the totality of the universe. He possesses external and internal energies and the mixed energy called the marginal potency, which consists of all the living entities.

 

1.3.4

pasyanty ado rupam adabhra-caksusa

sahasra-padoru-bhujananadbhutam

sahasra-murdha-sravanaksi-nasikam

sahasra-mauly-ambara-kundalollasat

 

The devotees, with their perfect eyes, see the transcendental form of the purusa who has thousands of legs, thighs, arms and faces—all extraordinary. In that body there are thousands of heads, ears, eyes and noses. They are decorated with thousands of helmets and glowing earrings and are adorned with garlands.

 

8.3.22-24

yasya brahmadayo deva

veda lokas caracarah

nama-rupa-vibhedena

phalgvya ca kalaya krtah

 

yatharciso 'gneh savitur gabhastayo

niryanti samyanty asakrt sva-rocisah

tatha yato 'yam guna-sampravaho

buddhir manah khani sarira-sargah

 

sa vai na devasura-martya-tiryan

na stri na sandho na puman na jantuh

nayam gunah karma na san na casan

nisedha-seso jayatad asesah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead creates His minor parts and parcels, the jiva-tattva, beginning with Lord Brahma, the demigods and the expansions of Vedic knowledge [Sama, Rg, Yajur and Atharva] and including all other living entities, moving and nonmoving, with their different names and characteristics. As the sparks of a fire or the shining rays of the sun emanate from their source and merge into it again and again, the mind, the intelligence, the senses, the gross and subtle material bodies, and the continuous transformations of the different modes of nature all emanate from the Lord and again merge into Him. He is neither demigod nor demon, neither human nor bird or beast. He is not woman, man, or neuter, nor is He an animal. He is not a material quality, a fruitive activity, a manifestation or nonmanifestation. He is the last word in the discrimination of "not this, not this," and He is unlimited. All glories to the Supreme Personality of Godhead!

 

one who knows the supreme lord knows that there is nothing else to be known except for the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.4.20)

 

10.87.37

na yad idam agra asa na bhavisyad ato nidhanad

anu mitam antara tvayi vibhati mrsaika-rase

ata upamiyate dravina-jati-vikalpa-pathair

vitatha-mano-vilasam rtam ity avayanty abudhah

 

Since this universe did not exist prior to its creation and will no longer exist after its annihilation, we conclude that in the interim it is nothing more than a manifestation imagined to be visible within You, whose spiritual enjoyment never changes. We liken this universe to the transformations of various material substances into diverse forms. Certainly those who believe that this figment of the imagination is substantially real are less intelligent.

 

sage audulomi declares that as soon as one attains liberation, his only satisfaction is the supreme lord's own blissful qualities.

(Vs. 1.4.21)

 

11.25.35-36

sattvam cabhijayed yukto

nairapeksyena santa-dhih

sampadyate gunair mukto

jivo jivam vihaya mam

 

jivo jiva-vinirmukto

gunais casaya-sambhavaih

mayaiva brahmana purno

na bahir nantaras caret

 

Then, being fixed in devotional service, the sage should also conquer the material mode of goodness by indifference toward the modes. Thus pacified within his mind, the spirit soul, freed from the modes of nature, gives up the very cause of his conditioned life and attains Me. Freed from the subtle conditioning of the mind and from the modes of nature born of material consciousness, the living entity becomes completely satisfied by experiencing My transcendental form. He no longer searches for enjoyment in the external energy, nor does he contemplate or  remember such enjoyment within himself.

 

such is the relationship between the soul and supersoul, declares sage kasakrtsna: the supreme lord resides within the living entity as the supersoul; he is full of knowledge, the greatest living entity and limitless.

(Vs. 1.4.22)

 

2.2.6

evam sva-citte svata eva siddha

atma priyo 'rtho bhagavan anantah

tam nirvrto niyatartho bhajeta

samsara-hetuparamas ca yatra

 

Thus being fixed, one must render service unto the Supersoul situated in one's own heart by His omnipotency. Because He is the Almighty Personality of Godhead, eternal and unlimited, He is the ultimate goal of life, and by worshiping Him one can end the cause of the conditioned state of existence.

 

 

Adhikarana 7: Brahman Is Both The Efficient And Material Cause.  

 

The Supreme Lord is both the efficient and material cause of the cosmic manifestation.

(Vs. 1.4.23)

 

10.2.28

tvam eka evasya satah prasutis

vam sannidhanam tvam anugrahas ca

tvan-mayaya samvrta-cetasas tvam

pasyanti nana na vipascito ye

 

The efficient cause of this material world, manifested with its many varieties as the original tree, is You, O Lord. You are also the maintainer of this material world, and after annihilation You are the one in whom everything is conserved. Those who are covered by Your external energy cannot see You behind this manifestation, but theirs is not the vision of learned devotees.

 

8.3.3.

yasminn idam yatas cedam

yenedam ya idam svayam

yo 'smat parasmac ca paras

tam prapadye svayambhuvam

 


The Supreme Godhead is the supreme platform on which everything rests, the ingredient by which everything has been produced, and the person who has created and is the only cause of this cosmic manifestation. Nonetheless, He is different from the cause and the result. I surrender unto Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is self-sufficient in everything.

 

the universe is created again and again by the will of the supreme lord; this proves that he is the both the efficient and material cause, for the universe has no other source than him.

(Vs. 1.4.24)

 

1.10.22

sa eva bhuyo nija-virya-coditam

sva-jiva-mayam prakrtim sisrksatim

anama-rupatmani rupa-namani

vidhitsamano 'nusasara sastra-krt

 

The Personality of Godhead, again desiring to give names and forms to His parts and parcels, the living entities, placed them under the guidance of material nature. By His own potency, material nature is empowered to re-create.

 

the lord is both the efficient and material cause for he is simultaneously one with and different from everything.

(Vs. 1.4.25)

 

3.28.40

yatholmukad visphulingad

dhumad vapi sva-sambhavat

apy atmatvenabhimatad

yathagnih prthag ulmukat

 

The blazing fire is different from the flames, from the sparks and from the smoke, although all are intimately connected because they are born from the same blazing wood.

 

the supreme lord is both the efficient and material cause by modification (parinama) of his energy.

(Vs. 1.4.26)

 

 2.5.22

kalad guna-vyatikarah

parinamah svabhavatah

karmano janma mahatah

purusadhisthitad abhut

 

After the incarnation of the first purusa [Karanarnavasayi Visnu], the mahat-tattva, or the principles of material creation, take place, and then time is manifested, and in course of time the three qualities appear. Nature means the three qualitative appearances. They transform into activities.

 

11.22.29

sri-bhagavan uvaca

prakrtih purusas ceti

esa vaikarikah sargo

guna-vyatikaratmakah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O best among men, material nature and its enjoyer are clearly distinct. This manifest creation undergoes constant transformation, being founded upon the agitation of the modes of nature.

 

the word 'yoni' (womb, or material cause) refers to the supreme lord.

(Vs. 1.4.27)

 

10.2.26

satya-vratam satya-param tri-satyam

satyasya yonim nihitam ca satye

satyasya satyam rta-satya-netram

satyatmakam tvam saranam prapannah

 

The demigods prayed: O Lord, You never deviate from Your vow, which is always perfect because whatever You decide is perfectly correct and cannot be stopped by anyone. Being present in the three phases of cosmic manifestation—creation, maintenance and annihilation—You are the Supreme Truth. Indeed, unless one is completely truthful, one cannot achieve Your favor, which therefore cannot be achieved by hypocrites. You are the active principle, the real truth, in all the ingredients of creation, and therefore you are known as antaryami, the inner force. You are equal to everyone, and Your instructions apply for everyone, for all time. You are the beginning of all truth. Therefore, offering our obeisances, we surrender unto You. Kindly give us protection.

 

 

Adhikarana 8: All Names Are Names Of Brahman.           

 

because the supreme lord is the only cause, all names (e.g. the names of demigods) are really only his names.

(Vs. 1.4.28)

 

6.4.28

sa vai mamasesa-visesa-maya-

nisedha-nirvana-sukhanubhutih

sa sarva-nama sa ca visva-rupah

prasidatam aniruktatma-saktih

 

May that Supersoul be pleased with me. The Supersoul is realized when one is eager for liberation from the unlimited varieties of material life. One actually attains such liberation when he engages in the transcendental loving service of the Lord and realizes the Lord because of his attitude of service. The Lord may be addressed by various spiritual names, which are inconceivable to the material senses. When will that Supreme Personality of Godhead be pleased with me?

 

6.4.30

yasmin yato yena ca yasya yasmai

yad yo yatha kurute karyate ca

paravaresam paramam prak prasiddham

tad brahma tad dhetur ananyad ekam

 

The Supreme Brahman, Krsna, is the ultimate resting place and source of everything. Everything is done by Him, everything belongs to Him, and everything is offered to Him. He is the ultimate objective, and whether acting or causing others to act, He is the ultimate doer. There are many causes, high and low, but since He is the cause of all causes, He is well known as the Supreme Brahman who existed before all activities. He is one without a second and has no other cause. I therefore offer my respects unto Him.

 

6.4.33, 34

yo 'nugrahartham bhajatam pada-mulam

anama-rupo bhagavan anantah

namani rupani ca janma-karmabhir

bheje sa mahyam paramah prasidatu

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is inconceivably opulent, who is devoid of all material names, forms and pastimes, and who is all-pervading, is especially merciful to the devotees who worship His lotus feet. Thus He exhibits transcendental forms and names with His different pastimes. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, be merciful to me.

 

yah prakrtair jnana-pathair jananam

yathasayam deha-gato vibhati

yathanilah parthivam asrito gunam

sa isvaro me kurutam manoratham

 

As the air carries various characteristics of the physical elements, like the aroma of a flower or colors resulting from a mixture of dust in the air, the Lord appears through lower systems of worship according to one's desires, although He appears as the demigods and not in His original form. What is the use of these other forms? May the original Supreme Personality of Godhead please fulfill my desires.

 

 

z

                                  

 

CHAPTER FIVE              

 [Vedanta-sutra Reference: Second Adhyaya, Pada One]

                              

   

• Contents of Chapter Five •

 

1. The atheistic Sankhya philosophy refuted.

2. Yoga refuted.

3. The Vedas are eternal and infallible.

4. The words 'fire' and 'earth' refer to the Devas.

5. That Brahman is the original creator is proved by logic.

6. Nothingness is not the first cause.

7. Kanada (the atomic theorist) and Gautama (the logician) refuted.

8. The material world is not different from Brahman.

9. The Supreme Brahman is the creator of the material world.

10. Brahman is neither cruel nor unjust.

11. Brahman is impartial.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: The Atheistic Sankhya Philosophy Refuted.      

 

the atheistic sankhya philosophers say it is wrong for vedantists to contradict their scriptures, but in fact their scriptures are wrong because they contradict the vedic explanation of creation.

(Vs. 2.1.1)

 

2.6.42

adyo 'vatarah purusah parasya

kalah svabhavah sad-asan-manas ca

dravyam vikaro guna indriyani

virat svarat sthasnu carisnu bhumnah

 

Karanarnavasayi Visnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakasayi Visnu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving.

 

(Vs. 2.1.2)

 

10.87.25

janim asatah sato mrtim utatmani ye ca bhidam

vipanam rtam smaranty upadisanti ta arupitaih

tri-guna-mayah puman iti bhida yad abodha-krta

tvayi na tatah paratra sa bhaved avabodha-rase

 

Supposed authorities who declare that matter is the origin of existence, that the permanent qualities of the soul can be destroyed, that the self is compounded of separate aspects of spirit and matter, or that material transactions constitute reality—all such authorities base their teachings on mistaken ideas that hide the truth. The dualistic conception that the living entity is produced from the three modes of nature is simply a product of ignorance. Such a conception has no real basis in You, for You are transcendental to all illusion and always enjoy perfect, total awareness.

 

12.12.7

yoga-dharanayotkrantih

samvado naradajayoh

avataranugitam ca

sargah pradhaniko 'gratah

 

The Bhagavatam explains how one can attain liberation at the time of death by practicing fixed meditation in yoga. It also contains a discussion between Narada and Brahma, an enumeration of the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and a description of how the universe was created in progressive sequence, beginning from the unmanifest stage of material existence.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: Yoga Refuted.                    

 

The Patanjala Yoga Scriptures Share The Same Defects As The Scriptures Of Atheistic Sankhya.

(Vs. 2.1.3)

 

10.87.25 (see above)

12.12.7 (see above)

 

 

Adhikarana 3: The Vedas Are Eternal And Infallible.        

 

The Vedas Are Self-Born, Eternal And Thus Without Compare.

(Vs. 2.1.4)

 

6.1.40

yamaduta ucuh

veda-pranihito dharmo

hy adhamaas tad-viparyayah

vedo narayanah saksat

svayambhur iti susruma

 

The Yamadutas replied: That which is prescribed in the Vedas constitutes dharma, the religious principles, and the opposite of that is irreligion. The Vedas are directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, and are self-born. This we have heard from Yamaraja.

 

10.84.19

brahma te hrdayam suklam

tapah-svadhyaya-samyamaih

yatropalabdham sad vyaktam

avyaktam ca tatah param

 

The Vedas are Your spotless heart, and through them one can perceive—by means of austerity, study and self-control—the manifest, the unmanifest and the pure existence transcendental to both.

 

 

Adhikarana 4:

The Words 'Fire' And 'Earth' Refer To The Devas.   

 

atheistic sankhya philosophers argue that the vedas are imperfect because they depict material elements as having the will to create, etc.; but it is the devas who will the material elements into action.

(Vs. 2.1.5)

 

6.9.21

sri-deva ucuh

vayv-ambaragny-ap-ksitayas tri-loka

brahmadayo ye vayam udvijantah

harama yasmai balim antako 'sau

bibheti yasmad aranam tato nah

 

The demigods said: The three worlds are created by the five elements—namely ether, air, fire, water and earth—which are controlled by various demigods, beginning from Lord Brahma. Being very much afraid that the time factor will end our existence, we offer presentations unto time by performing our work as time dictates. The time factor himself, however, is afraid of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore let us now worship that Supreme Lord, who alone can give us full protection.

 

 

Adhikarana 5:

That Brahman Is The Original Creator Is Proved By Logic.                               

 

the advocates of 'pradhana as the cause' argue that the supreme lord, who is 'sat' (real), cannot be the material cause of the universe, which is 'asat' (unreal). but they are simply bewildered by the power of maya.

(Vs. 2.1.6)

 

10.87.26

sad iva manas tri-vit tvayi vibhaty asad a-manujat

sad abhimrsanty asesam idam atmatayatma-vidah

na hi vikrtim tyajanti kanakasya tad-atmataya

sva-krtam anupravistam idam atmatayavasitam

 


The three modes of material nature comprise everything in this world—from the simplest phenomena to the complex human body. Although these phenomena appear real, they are only a false reflection of the spiritual reality, being a superimposition of the mind upon You. Still, those who know the Supreme Self consider the entire material creation to be real inasmuch as it is nondifferent from the Self. Just as things made of gold are indeed not to be rejected, since their substance is actual gold, so this world is undoubtedly nondifferent from the Lord who created it and then entered within it.

 

3.28.44

tasmad imam svam prakrtim

daivim sad-asad-atmikam

durvibhavyam parabhavya

svarupenavatis thate

 

Thus the yogi can be in the self-realized position after conquering the insurmountable spell of maya, who presents herself as both the cause and effect of this material manifestation and is therefore very difficult to understand.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: Nothingness Is Not The First Cause.         

 

Objecting to the previous standpoint, the atheistic sankhya philosophers argue: 'if "sat" is the cause and "asat" is the effect, then before creation only "sat" existed; "asat" must have been utterly nonexistent, for the unreal cannot abide with the real. Thus by the logic of vedanta's own doctrine of causation, the material world arose from nothing and is fundamentally insubstantial. But the vedantists say the universe is real because it is the effect of the real cause. This is inconsistent.'

 

Reply: the atheistic sankyha philosophers think that because the nature of the supreme lord is different from the nature of the universe, and because the qualities of the supreme lord are not visible within the universe, the lord cannot be the material cause of the universe. A wet lump of clay is different from a clay pot; yet it is the material cause of the pot, because both share the same essential ingredient. Similarly, although the names and forms of the universe are 'asat', the universe essentially does exist as the energy of the 'sat'; thus it is a real effect of a real cause. It is not logical to demand that the attributes of a cause be completely replicated in its effect. The spider is the material cause of its web, but the spider's attributes are not replicated in the web. Similarly, the universe does not display all the attributes of its material cause, the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.1.7)

 

10.2.26

satya-vratam satya-param tri-satyam

satyasya yonim nihitam ca satye

satyasya satyam rta-satya-netram

satyatmakam tvam saranam prapannah

 

The demigods prayed: O Lord, You never deviate from Your vow, which is always perfect because whatever You decide is perfectly correct and cannot be stopped by anyone. Being present in the three phases of cosmic manifestation—creation, maintenance and annihilation—You are the Supreme Truth. Indeed, unless one is completely truthful, one cannot achieve Your favor, which therefore cannot be achieved by hypocrites. You are the active principle, the real truth, in all the ingredients of creation, and therefore you are known as antaryami, the inner force. You are equal to everyone, and Your instructions apply for everyone, for all time. You are the beginning of all truth. Therefore, offering our obeisances, we surrender unto You. Kindly give us protection.

 

3.21.19

ekah svayam san jagatah sisrksaya-

dvitiyayatmann adhi-yogamayaya

srjasy adah pasi punar grasisyase

yathorna-nabhir bhagavan sva-saktibhih

 

My dear Lord, You alone create the universes. O Personality of Godhead, desiring to create these universes, You create them, maintain them and again wind them up by Your own energies, which are under the control of Your second energy, called yogamaya, just as a spider creates a cobweb by its own energy and again winds it up.

 

objection: if the supreme lord is indeed the material cause of a universe that is defective by its being temporary, ignorant and miserable, then logic forces us to conclude that he will be tainted with these defects when he absorbs the universe into himself at the time of devastation.

(Vs. 2.1.8)

 

4.7.42

deva ucuh

pura kaipapaye sva-krtam udari-krtya vikrtam

tvam evadyas tasmin salila uragendradhiayane

puman sese siddhair hrdi vimrsitadhyatma-padavih

sa evadyaksnor yah pathi carasi bhrtyan avasi nah

 

The demigods said: Dear Lord, formerly, when there was a devastation, You conserved all the different energies of material manifestation. At that time, all the inhabitants of the higher planets, represented by such liberated souls as Sanaka, were meditating on You by philosophical speculation. You are therefore the original person, and You rest in the water of devastation on the bed of the Sesa snake. Now, today, You are visible to us, who are all Your servants. Please give us protection.

 

reply: this objection is not valid, because the supreme lord is transcendental.

(Vs. 2.1.9)

 

4.7.26

daksa uvaca

suddham sva-dhamny uparatakhila-buddhy-avastham

cin-matram ekam abhayam pratisidhya mayam

tisthams tayaiva purusatvam upetya tasyam

aste bhavan apariuddha ivatma-tantrah

 

Daksa addressed the Supreme Personality of Godhead: My dear Lord, You are transcendental to all speculative positions. You are completely spiritual, devoid of all fear, and You are always in control of the material energy. Even though You appear in the material energy, You are situated transcendentally. You are always free from material contamination because You are completely self-sufficient.

 

the objections raised by the atheistic sankhya philosopers against the vedanta standpoint actually apply to their own position, wherein the purusa is said to be inert, powerless and dependent upon the activities of pradhana, which is the only source of creation. they say pradhana has no qualities, yet is the material cause of the qualities of the universe.

(Vs. 2.1.10)

 


?.4.32

astiti nastiti ca vastu-nisthayor

eka-sthayor bhinna-viruddha-dharmanoh

aveksitam kincana yoga-sankhyayoh

samam param hy anukulam brhat tat

 

There are two parties—namely, the theists and the atheists. The theist, who accepts the Supersoul, finds the spiritual cause through mystic yoga. The Sankhyite, however, who merely analyzes the material elements, comes to a conclusion of impersonalism and does not accept a supreme cause—whether Bhagavan, Paramatma or even Brahman. Instead, he is preoccupied with the superfluous, external activities of material nature. Ultimately, however, both parties demonstrate the Absolute Truth because although they offer opposing statements, their object is the same ultimate cause. They are both approaching the same Supreme Brahman, to whom I offer my respectful obeisances.

 

3.7.9

maitreya uvaca

seyam bhagavato maya

yan nayena virudhyate

isvarasya vimuktasya

karpanyam uta bandhanam

 

Sri Maitreya said: Certain conditioned souls put forward the theory that the Supreme Brahman, or the Personality of Godhead, is overcome by illusion, or maya, and at the same time they maintain that He is unconditioned. This is against all logic.

 

2.5.13

vilajjamanaya yasya

sthatum iksa-pathe 'muya

vimohita vikatthante

mamaham iti durdhiyah

 

The illusory energy of the Lord cannot take precedence, being ashamed of her position, but those who are bewildered by her always talk nonsense, being absorbed in thoughts of "It is I" and "It is mine."

 

10.14.57

sarvesam api vastunam

bhavartho bhavati sthitah

tasyapi bhagavan krsnah

kim atad vastu rupyatam

 

The original, unmanifest form of material nature is the source of all material things, and the source of even that subtle material nature is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna. What, then, could one ascertain to be separate from Him?

 

10.16.46

namo guna-pradipaya

gunatma-chhadanaya ca

guna-vrtty-upalaksyaya

guna-drastre sva-samvide

 

Obeisances to You, O Lord, who manifest varieties of material and spiritual qualities. You disguise Yourself with the material qualities, and yet the functioning of those same material qualities ultimately reveals Your existence. You stand apart from the material qualities as a witness and can be fully known only by Your devotees.

 

 

Adhikarana 7:

Kanada (The Atomic Theorist) And Gautama (The Logician) Refuted.                              

 

the supreme truth is neither established nor refuted by logical argument.

(Vs. 2.1.11)

 

2.6.40-41

visuddham kevalam jnanam

pratyak samyag avasthitam

satyam purnam anady-antam

nirgunam nityam advayam

 

rse vidanti munayah

prasantatmendriyasayah

yada tad evasat-tarkais

tirodhiyeta viplutam

 

The Personality of Godhead is pure, being free from all contaminations of material tinges. He is the Absolute Truth and the embodiment of full and perfect knowledge. He is all-pervading, without beginning or end, and without rival. O Narada, O great sage, the great thinkers can know Him when completely freed from all material hankerings and when sheltered under undisturbed conditions of the senses. Otherwise, by untenable arguments, all is distorted, and the Lord disappears from our sight.

 

the theories of the logicians and atomists (nyayakas and vaisesikas) about the cause of creation are also rejected because they are not supported by the vedic scriptures.

(Vs. 2.1.12)

 

5.12.9-11

evam niruktam ksiti-sabda-vrttam

asan nidhanat paramanavo ye

avidyaya manasa kalpitas te

yesam samuhena krto visesah

 

One may say that varieties arise from the planet earth itself. However, although the universe may temporarily appear to be the truth, it ultimately has no real existence. The earth was originally created by a combination of atomic particles, but these particles are impermanent. Actually the atom is not the cause of the universe, although some philosophers think so. It is not a fact that the varieties found in this material world simply result from atomic juxtaposition or combination.

 

evam krsam sthulam anur brhad yad

asac ca sajjivam ajivam anyat

dravya-svabhavasaya-kala-karma-

namnajayavehi krtam dvitiyam

 

Since this universe has no real ultimate existence, the things within it—shortness, differences, grossness, skinniness, smallness, bigness, result, cause, living symptoms, and materials—are all imagined. They are all pots made of the same substance, earth, but they are named differently. The differences are characterized by the substance, nature, predisposition, time and activity. You should know that all these are simply mechanical manifestations created by material nature.

 

jnanam visuddham paramartham ekam

anantaram tv abahir brahma satyam

pratyak pras-antam bhagavac-chabda-samjnam

yad vasudevam kavayo vadanti

 

What, then, is the ultimate truth? The answer is that nondual knowledge is the ultimate truth. It is devoid of the contamination of material qualities. It gives us liberation. It is the one without a second, all-pervading and beyond imagination. The first realization of that knowledge is Brahman. Then Paramatma, the Supersoul, is realized by the yogis who try to see Him without grievance. This is the second stage of realization. Finally, full realization of the same supreme knowledge is realized in the Supreme Person. All learned scholars describe the Supreme Person as Vasudeva, the cause of Brahman, Paramatma and others.

 

objection: if the supreme lord is the material cause of creation, then there would be no distinction between the jiva (individual soul) and the supreme lord. in other words, vedanta posits the lord as the material cause—this means he is his own emanation. the jiva is also an emanation from the supreme lord. hence, vedanta obscures the distinction between god and jiva.

 

reply: the supreme lord with his sakti (the jiva and the material energy) is the supreme lord, though the sakti is different from the lord, just as a man with a weapon is still a man, though the weapon is different from him as his energy.

(Vs. 2.1.13)

 

6.16.9-11

esa nityo 'vyayah suksma

esa sarvasrayah svadrk

atmamaya-gunair visvam

atmanam srjate prabhuh

 

The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.

 

na hy asyasti priyah kascin

napriyah svah paro pi va

ekah sarva-dhiyam drasta

kartrnam guna-dosayoh

 

For this living entity, no one is dear, nor is anyone unfavorable. He makes no distinction between that which is his own and that which belongs to anyone else. He is one without a second; in other words, he is not affected by friends and enemies , well-wishers or mischief-mongers. He is only an observer, a witness, of the different qualities of men.

 

nadatta atma hi gunam

na dosam na kriya-phalam

udasinavad asinah

paravara-drg isvarah

 

The Supreme Lord [atma], the creator of cause and effect, does not accept the happiness and distress that result from fruitive actions. He is completely independent of having to accept a material body, and because He has no material body, He is always neutral. The living entities, being part and parcel of the Lord, possess His qualities in a minute quantity. Therefore one should not be affected by lamentation.

 

 


Adhikarana 8: The Material World Is Not Different From Brahman.  

 

the material world is not different from brahman.

(Vs. 2.1.14)

 

6.16.22, 7.3.26

yasminn idam yatas cedam

tisthaty apyeti jayate

mrnmayesv iva mrjjatis

tasmai te brahmane namah

 

As pots made completely of earth are situated on earth after being created and are transformed into earth again when broken, this cosmic manifestation is caused by the Supreme Brahman, situated in the Supreme Brahman, and annihilated in the same Supreme Brahman. Therefore, since the Supreme Lord is the cause of Brahman, let us offer Him our respectful obeisances.

 

4.9.16

yasmin viruddha-gatayo hy anisam patanti

vidyadayo vividha-saktaya anupurvyat

tad brahma visva-bhavam ekam anantam adyam

ananda-matram avikaram aham prapadye

 

My dear Lord, in Your impersonal manifestation of Brahman there are always two opposing elements—knowledge and ignorance. Your multienergies are continually manifest, but the impersonal Brahman, which is undivided, original, changeless, unlimited and blissful, is the cause of the material manifestation. Because You are the same impersonal Brahman, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 

within the effect (the material world), the cause (brahman) can be seen, just as the sight of a cobweb makes one think of a spider.

(Vs. 2.1.15)

 

3.21.19

ekah svayam san jagatah sisrksaya-

dvitiyayatmann adhi-yogamayaya

srjasy adah pasi punar grasisyase

yathorna-nabhir bhagavan sva-saktibhih

 

My dear Lord, You alone create the universes. O Personality of Godhead, desiring to create these universes, You create them, maintain them and again wind them up by Your own energies, which are under the control of Your second energy, called yogamaya, just as a spider creates a cobweb by its own energy and again winds it up.

 

10.87.15

brhad upalabdham etad avayanty avasesataya

yata udayastam-ayau vikrter murdi vavikrtat

ata rsayo dadhus tvayi mano-vacanacaritam

katham ayatha bhavanti bhuvi datta-padani nrnam

 

This perceivable world is identified with the Supreme because the Supreme Brahman is the ultimate foundation of all existence, remaining unchanged as all created things are generated from it and at last dissolved into it, just as clay remains unchanged by the products made from it and again merged with it. Thus it is toward You alone that the Vedic sages direct all their thoughts, words and acts. After all, how can the footsteps of men fail to touch the earth on which they live?

 


even before its manifestation, the effect is latent within the cause.

(Vs. 2.1.16)

 

2.9.17

adhyarhaniyasanam asthitam param

vrtam catuh-sodasa-panca-saktibhih

yuktam bhagaih svair itaratra cadhruvaih

sva eva dhaman ramamanam isvaram

 

The Lord was seated on His throne and was surrounded by different energies like the four, the sixteen, the five, and the six natural opulences, along with other insignificant energies of the temporary character. But He was the factual Supreme Lord, enjoying His own abode.

 

2.5.14

dravyam karma ca kalas ca

svabhavo jiva eva ca

vasudevat paro brahman

na canyo 'rtho 'sti tattvatah

 

The five elementary ingredients of creation, the interaction thereof set up by eternal time, and the intuition or nature of the individual living beings are all differentiated parts and parcels of the Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, and in truth there is no other value in them.

 

2.6.31

narayane bhagavati

tad iclam visvam ahitam

grhita-mayoru-gu nah

sargadav agunah svatah

 

All the material manifestations of the universes are therefore situated in His powerful material energies, which He accepts self-sufficiently, although He is eternally without affinity for the material modes.

 

objection: taittiriya upanisad 2.6.1 states 'in the beginning was asat.' the supreme lord is sat. how can asat coexist with sat?

 

reply: in this context, asat means 'unmanifest' and sat means 'manifest.' both are attributes of the energy of the supreme lord. because he has no material qualities, the supreme lord may be called asat (nothing, void).

(Vs. 2.1.17)

 

10.87.29

sthira-cara-jatasyah syur ajayottha-nimitta-yujo

vihara udiksaya yadi parasya vimukta tatah

na hi paramasya kascid aparo na paras ca bhaved

viyata ivapadasya tava sunya-tulam dadhatah

 

O eternally liberated, transcendental Lord, your material energy causes the various moving and nonmoving species of life to appear by activating their material desires, but only when and if You sport with her by briefly glancing over her. You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, see no one as an intimate friend and no one as a stranger, just as the ethereal sky has no connection with perceptible qualities. In this sense You resemble a void.

 


'sat' and 'asat' indicate whether a thing is perceptible or not, not whether it exists or not.

(Vs. 2.1.18)

 

8.3.4

yah svatmanidam nija-mayayarpitam

kvacid vibhatam kva ca tat tirohitam

aviddha-drk saksy ubhayam tad iksate

sa atma-mulo 'vatu mam parat-parah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, by expanding His own energy, keeps this cosmic manifestation visible and again sometimes renders it invisible. He is both the supreme cause and the supreme result, the observer and the witness, in all circumstances. Thus He is transcendental to everything. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead give me protection.

 

3.10.13

yathedanim tathagre ca

pascad apy etad idrsam

 

This cosmic manifestation is as it is now, it was the same in the past, and it will continue in the same way in the future.

 

as the thread that is woven to make the cloth exists before the cloth and yet is the cloth, so the lord who is the weave of the fabric of creation exists before creation and yet is the creation.

(Vs. 2.1.19)

 

6.3.12

yama uvaca

paro mad-anyo jagatas tasthusas ca

otam protam patavad yatra visvam

yad-amsato 'sya sthiti janma-nasa

nasy otavad yasya vase ca lokah

 

Yamaraja said: My dear servants, you have accepted me as the Supreme, but factually I am not. Above me, and above all the other demigods, including Indra and Candra, is the one supreme master and controller. The partial manifestations of His personality are Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who are in charge of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this universe. He is like the two threads that form the length and breadth of a woven cloth. The entire world is controlled by Him just as a bull is controlled by a rope in its nose.

 

12.4.27

satyam hy avayavah proktah

sarvavayavinam iha

vinarthena pratiyeran

patasyevanga tantavah

 

My dear King, it is stated [in the Vedanta-sutra] that the ingredient cause that constitutes any manifested product in this universe can be perceived as a separate reality, just as the threads that make up a cloth can be perceived separately from their product.

 

as the life airs merge into the main prana and emerge again, similarly creation merges into and emerges out of the supreme lord and is thus not different from him.

(Vs. 2.1.20)

 

5.20.28

antah-pravisya bhutani

yo bibharty atma-ketubhih

antaryamisvarah saksat

patu no yad-vase sphutam

 

[The inhabitants of Sakadvipa worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of Vayu in the following words.] O Supreme Person, situated as the Supersoul within the body, You direct the various actions of the different airs, such as prana, and thus You maintain all living entities. O Lord, O Supersoul of everyone, O controller of the cosmic manifestation under whom everything exists, may You protect us from all dangers.

 

 

Adhikarana 9:

The Supreme Brahman Is The Creator Of The Material World.                               

 

the supreme lord is the efficient cause of creation; to argue that the jiva is the efficient cause is illogical, for why would the jiva create a world in which he has to suffer?

(Vs. 2.1.21)

 

4.11.17

nimitta-matram tatrasin

nirgunah purusarsabhah

vyaktavyaktam idam visvam

yatra bhramati lohavat

 

My dear Dhruva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is uncontaminated by the material modes of nature. He is the remote cause of the creation of this material cosmic manifestation. When He gives the impetus, many other causes and effects are produced, and thus the whole universe moves, just as iron moves by the integrated force of a magnet.

 

11.4.2-4

sri-drumila uvaca

yo va anantasya gunan anantan

anukramisyan sa tu bala-buddhih

rajamsi bhumer ganayat kathancit

kalena naivakhila-sakti-dhamnah

 

Sri Drumila said: Anyone trying to enumerate or describe fully the unlimited qualities of the unlimited Supreme Lord has the intelligence of a foolish child. Even if a great genius could somehow or other, after a time-consuming endeavor, count all the particles of dust on the surface of the earth, such a genius could never count the attractive qualities of the Personality of Godhead, who is the reservoir of all potencies.

 

bhutair yada pancabhir atma-srstaih

puram virajam viracavya tasmin

svamsena vistah purusabhidhanam

avapa narayana adi-devah

 

When the primeval Lord Narayana created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the Purusa.

 

yat-kaya esa bhuvana-traya-sanniveso

yasyendriyais tanu-bhrtam ubhayendriyani

jnanam svatah svasanato balam oja iha

sattvadibhih sthiti-layodbhava adi-karta

 

Within His body are elaborately arranged the three planetary systems of this universe. His transcendental senses generate the knowledge-acquiring and active senses of all embodied beings. His consciousness generates conditioned knowledge, and His powerful breathing produces the bodily strength, sensory power and conditioned activities of the embodied souls. He is the prime mover, through the agency of the material modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. And thus the universe is created, maintained and annihilated.

 

the supreme lord is not a jiva. he is the greatest living being.

(Vs. 2.1.22)

 

11.6.15, 17

asyasi hetur udaya-sthiti-samyamanam

avyakta-jiva-mahatam api kalam ahuh

so 'yam tri-nabhir akhilapacaye pravrttah

kalo gabhira-raya uttama-purusas tvam

 

You are the cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of this universe. As time, You regulate the subtle and manifest states of material nature and control every living being. As the threefold wheel of time You diminish all things by Your imperceptible actions, and thus You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

tat tasthusas ca jagatas ca bhavan adhiso

yan mayayottha-guna-vikriyayopanitan

arthan jusann api hrsika-pate na lipto

ye 'nye svatah parihrtad api bibhyati sma

 

O Lord, You are the supreme creator of this universe and the ultimate controller of all moving and nonmoving living entities. You are Hrsikesa, the supreme controller of all sensory activity, and thus You never become contaminated or entangled in the course of Your supervision of the infinite sensory activities within the material creation. On the other hand, other living entities, even yogis and philosophers, are disturbed and frightened simply by remembering the material objects that they have supposedly renounced in their pursuit of enlightenment.

 

jivas have no power to create the universe. they are but instruments of the lord's will.

(Vs. 2.1.23)

 

10.87.30

aparimita dhruvas tanu-bhrto yadi sarva-gatas

tarhi na sasyateti niyamo dhruva netaratha

ajani ca yan-mayam tad avimucya niyantr bhavet

samam anujanatam yad amatam mata-dustataya

 

If the countless living entities were all-pervading and possessed forms that never changed, You could not possibly be their absolute ruler, O immutable one. But since they are Your localized expansions and their forms are subject to change, You do control them. Indeed, that which supplies the ingredients for the generation of something is necessarily its controller because a product never exists apart from its ingredient cause. It is simply illusion for someone to think that he knows the Supreme Lord, who is equally present in each of His expansions, since whatever knowledge one gains by material means must be imperfect.

 

though it can be argued that the jiva is also a creator, he has no independence in his creative activities, as a cow has no independence in producing milk.

(Vs. 2.1.24)

2.5.17

tasyapi drastur iasya

kuta-sthasyakhilatmanah

srjyam srjami srsto 'ham

iksayaivabhicoditah

 

Inspired by Him only, I discover what is already created by Him [Narayana] under His vision as the all-pervading Supersoul, and I also am created by Him only.

 

the supreme lord is the unseen efficient cause of the material world.

(Vs. 2.1.25)

 

10.2.28

tvam eka evasya satah prasutis

tvam sannidhanam tvam anugrahas ca

tvan-mayaya samvrta-cetasas tvam

pasyanti nana na vipascito ye

 

The efficient cause of this material world, manifested with its many varieties as the original tree, is You, O Lord. You are also the maintainer of this material world, and after annihilation You are the one in whom everything is conserved. Those who are covered by Your external energy cannot see You behind this manifestation, but theirs is not the vision of learned devotees.

 

unlike the supreme lord, the jiva is indivisible. a living entity cannot independently expand himself into plenary portions. his expansions or offspring are creations of the material energy.

(Vs. 2.1.26)

 

6.16.8, 9

evam yoni-gato jivah

sa nityo nirahankrtah

yavad yatropalabhyeta

tavat svatvam hi tasya tat

 

Even though one living entity becomes connected with another because of a relationship based on bodies that are perishable, the living entity is eternal. Actually it is the body that is born or lost, not the living entity. One should not accept that the living entity takes birth or dies. The living being actually has no relationship with so-called fathers and mothers. As long as he appears as the son of a certain father and mother as a result of his past fruitive activities, he has a connection with the body given by that father and mother. Thus he falsely accepts himself as their son and acts affectionately. After he dies, however, the relationship is finished. Under these circumstances, one should not be falsely involved with jubilat ion and lamentation.

 

esa nityo 'vyayah suksma

esa sarvasrayah svadrk

atmamaya-gunair visvam

atmanam srjate prabhuh

 

The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.

 

the supreme lord has no such limitation.

(Vs. 2.1.27)

2.5.15

narayana-para veda

deva narayana-ngajah

narayana-para loka

narayana-para makhah

 

The Vedic literatures are made by and are meant for the Supreme Lord, the demigods are also meant for serving the Lord as parts of His body, the different planets are also meant for the sake of the Lord, and different sacrifices are performed just to please Him.

 

6.16.51

aham vai sarva-bhutani

bhutatma bhuta-bhavanah

sabda-brahma param brahma

mamobhe sasvati tanu

 

All living entities, moving and nonmoving, are My expansions and are separate from Me. I am the Supersoul of all living beings, who exist because I manifest them. I am the form of the transcendental vibrations like omkara and Hare Krsna Hare Rama, and I am the Supreme Absolute Truth. These two forms of Mine—namely, the transcendental sound and the eternally blissful spiritual form of the Deity, are My eternal forms; they are not material.

 

10.14.17

adyaiva tvad rte 'sya kim mama na te mayatvam adarsitam

eko 'si prathamam tato vraja-suhrd-vatash samasta api

tavanto 'si catur-bhujas tad akhilaih sakam mayopasitas

tavanty eva jaganty abhus tad amitam brahmadvayam sisyate

 

Have You not shown me today that both You Yourself and everything within this creation are manifestations of Your inconceivable potencies? First You appeared alone, and then You manifested Yourself as all of Vrndavana's calves and cowherd boys, Your friends. Next You appeared as an equal number of four-handed Visnu forms, who were worshiped by all living beings, including me, and after that You appeared as an equal number of complete universes. Finally, You have now returned to You unlimited form as the Supreme Absolute Truth, one without a second.

 

1.3.28

ete camsa-kalah pumsah

krsnas tu bhagavan svayam

indrari-vyakulam lokam

mrdayanti yuge yuge

 

All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists.

 

the marvels of the kalpa-vrksa tree and the philosopher stone are but hints of the unique potency of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.1.28)

 

8.23.8

citram tavehitam aho 'mita-yogamaya-

lila-visrsta-bhuvanasya visa radasya

sarvatmanah samadrso 'visamah svabhavo

bhakta-priyo yad asi kalpataru-svabhavah

 

O my Lord, Your pastimes are all wonderfully performed by Your inconceivable spiritual energy; and by her perverted reflection, the material energy, You have created all the universes. As the Supersoul of all living entities, You are aware of everything, and therefore You are certainly equal toward everyone. Nonetheless, You favor Your devotees. This is not partiality, however, for Your characteristic is just like that of a desire tree, which yields everything according to one's desire.

 

7.3.34

anantavyakta-rupena

yenedam akhilam tatam

cid-acic-chakti-yuktaya

tasmai bhagavate namah

 

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme, who in his unlimited, unmanifested form has expanded the cosmic manifestation, the form of the totality of the universe. He possesses external and internal energies and the mixed energy called the marginal potency, which consists of all the living entities.

 

all this demonstrates the futility of the argument that a jiva created the universe.

(Vs. 2.1.29)

 

6.9.42

atha bhagavams tavasmabhir akhila jagad-utpatti-sthiti-laya-nimittayamana-divya-maya-vinodasya sakala jiva-nikayanam antarhrdayesu bahir api ca brahma-pratyag-atma-svarupena pradhanarupena ca yatha-desa-kala-dehavasthana-visesam tadupadanopalambhakatayanubhavatah sarva-pratyaya-saksina akasasarirasya saksat para-brahmanah paramatmanah kiyan iha varthaviseso vijnapaniyah syad visphulingadibhir iva hiranya-retasah.

 

O Lord, as the small sparks of a fire cannot possibly perform the actions of the whole fire, we sparks of Your Lordship cannot inform You of the necessities of our lives. You are the complete whole. Therefore, of what do we need to inform You? You know everything because You are the original cause of the cosmic manifestation, the maintainer and the annihilator of the entire universal creation. You always engage in Your pastimes with Your spiritual and material energies, for You are the controller of all these varied energies. You exist within all living entities, within the cosmic manifestation, and also beyond them. You exist internally as Parabrahman and externally as the ingredients of the material creation. Therefore, although manifested in various stages, at different times and places, and in various bodies, You, the Personality of Godhead, are the original cause of all causes. Indeed, You are the original element. You are the witness of all activities, but because You are as great as the sky, You are never touched by any of them. You are the witness of everything as Parabrahman and Paramatma. O Supreme Personality of Godhead, nothing is unknown to You.

 

6.4.30

yasmin yato yena ca yasya yasmai

yad yo yatha kurute karyate ca

paravaresam paramam prak prasiddham

tad brahma tad dhetur ananyad ekam

 

The Supreme Brahman, Krsna, is the ultimate resting place and source of everything. Everything is done by Him, everything belongs to Him, and everything is offered to Him. He is the ultimate objective, and whether acting or causing others to act , He is the ultimate doer. There are many causes, high and low, but since He is the cause of all causes, He is well known as the Supreme Brahman who existed before all activities. He is one without a second and has no other cause. I therefore offer my respects unto Him.

 

the supreme lord possesses all powers.

(VS. 2.1.30)

 

3.33.3

sa eva visvasya bhavan vidhatte

guna-pravahena vibhakta-viryah

sargady aniho 'vitathabhisandhir

atmesvaro 'tarkya-sahasra-saktih

 


My dear Lord, although personally You have nothing to do, You have distributed Your energies in the interactions of the material modes of nature, and for that reason the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic manifestation take place. My dear Lord, You are self-determined and are the Supreme Personality of Godhead for all living entities. For them You created this material manifestation, and although You are one, Your diverse energies can act multifariously. This is inconceivable to us.

 

3.2.21

svayam tv asamyatisayas tryadhisah

svarajya-laksmy-apta-samasta-kamah

balim haradbhis cira-loka-palaih

kirita-koty-edita-pada-pithah

 

Lord Sri Krsna is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshiped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet.

 

objection: the supreme lord cannot be the possessor of potency, because he has no senses.

 

reply: the scriptures declare that he does.

(Vs. 2.1.31)

 

10.87.28

tvam akaranah sva-rad akhila-karaka-sakti-dharas

tava balim udhahanti samadanty ajayanimisah

varsa-bhujo 'khila-ksiti-pater iva visva-srjo

vidadhati yatra ye tv adhikrta bhavatas cakitah

 

Though You have no material senses, You are the self-effulgent sustainer of everyone's sensory powers. The demigods and material nature herself offer You tribute, while also enjoying the tribute offered them by their worshipers, just as subordinate rulers of various districts in a kingdom offer tribute to their lord, the ultimate proprietor of the land, while also enjoying the tribute paid them by their own subjects. In this way the universal creators faithfully execute their assigned services out of fear of You.

 

there is no personal motivation or need behind the supreme lord's act of creating the material world.

(Vs. 2.1.32)

 

6.17.22, 23

na tasya kascid dayitah pratipo

na jnati-bandhur na paro na ca svah

samasya sarvatra niranjanasya

sukhe na ragah kuta eva rosah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is equally disposed toward all living entities. Therefore no one is very dear to Him, and no one is a great enemy for Him; no one is His friend, and no one is His relative. Being unattached to the material world, He has no affection for so-called happiness or hatred for so-called distress. The two terms happiness and distress are relative. Since the Lord is always happy, for Him there is no question of distress.

 

tathapi tac-chakti-visarga esam

sukhaya duhkhaya hitahitaya

bandhaya moksaya ca mrtyu janmanoh

saririnam samsrtaye 'vakalpate

 

Although the Supreme Lord is unattached to our happiness and distress according to karma, and although no one is His enemy or favorite, He creates pious and impious activities through the agency of His material potency. Thus for the continuation of the materialistic way of life He creates happiness and distress, good fortune and bad, bondage and liberation, birth and death.

 

the creation is simply the supreme lord's pastime.

(Vs. 2.1.33)

 

3.5.22

atha te bhagaval-lila

yoga-mayorubrmhitah

visva-sthity-udbhavantartha

varnayamy anupumasah

 

I shall therefore describe to you the pastimes by which the Personality of Godhead extends His transcendental potency for the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic world as they occur one after another.

 

3.9.14

sasvat svarupa-mahasaiva nipita-bheda-

mohaya bodha-dhis anaya namah parasmai

visvodbhava-sthiti-layesu nimitta-lila-

rasaya te nama idam cakrmesvaraya

 

Let me offer my obeisances unto the Supreme Transcendence, who is eternally distinguished by His internal potency. His indistinguishable impersonal feature is realized by intelligence for self-realization. I offer my obeisances unto Him who by His pastimes enjoys the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic manifestation.

 

 

Adhikarana 10: Brahman Is Neither Cruel Nor Unjust.        

 

the supreme lord is neither cruel nor unjust in his act of creating the material world. the living entities suffer or enjoy due to their own karma.

(Vs. 2.1.34)

 

4.11.20

na vai sva-pakso 'sya vipaksa eva va

parasya mrtyor visatah samam prajah

tam dhavamanam anudhavanty anisa

yatha rajamsy anilam bhuta-sanghah

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, in His feature of eternal time, is present in the material world and is neutral towards everyone. No one is His ally, and no one is His enemy. Within the jurisdiction of the time element, everyone enjoys or suffers the result of his own karma,orfruitiveactivities. As, when the wind blows, small particles of dust fly in the air, so, according to one's particular karma, one suffers or enjoys material life.

 

3.31.1

sri-bhagavan uvaca

karmana daiva-netrena

jantur dehopapattaye

striyah pravista udaram

 

The Personality of Godhead said: Under the supervision of the Supreme Lord and according to the result of his work, the living entity, the soul, is made to enter into the womb of a woman through the particle of male semen to assume a particular type of body.

 

objection: in the beginning, at the time of the first creation, the living entity had no karma.

 

reply: this objection is not valid. there is no beginning to the cycles of cosmic creation (or, the cycles of cosmic creation are eternally kept in motion by the supreme lord, who has no beginning).

(Vs. 2.1.35)

 

2.5.17, 18

tasyapi drastur iasya

kuta-sthasyakhilatmanah

srjyam srjami srsto 'ham

iksayaivabhicoditah

 

Inspired by Him only, I discover what is already created by Him [Narayana] under His vision as the all-pervading Supersoul, and I also am created by Him only.

 

sattvam rajas tama iti

nirgunasya gunas trayah

sthiti-sarga-nirodhes u

grhita mayaya vibhoh

 

The Supreme Lord is pure spiritual form, transcendental to all material qualities, yet for the sake of the creation of the material world and its maintenance and annihilation, He accepts through His external energy the material modes of nature called goodness, passion and ignorance.

 

2.5.20, 21

sa esa bhagaval lingais

tribhir etair adhoksajah

svalaksita-gatir brahman

sarvesam mama cesvarah

 

O Brahmana Narada, the Superseer, the transcendent Lord, is beyond the perception of the material senses of the living entities because of the above-mentioned three modes of nature. But He is the controller of everyone, including me.

 

kalam karma svabhavam ca

mayeso mayaya svaya

atman yadrcchaya praptam

vibubhusur upadade

 

The Lord, who is the controller of all energies, thus creates, by His own potency, eternal time, the fate of all living entities, and their particular nature, for which they were created, and He again merges them independently.

 

 

Adhikarana 11: Brahman Is Impartial.                

 

the supreme lord loves his devotees and shows his partiality to them by liberating them from karma.

(Vs. 2.1.36)

 


8.4.13

evam vimoksya gaja-yutha-pam abja-nabhas

tenapi parsada-gatim gamitena yuktah

gandharva-siddha-vibudhair upag-yamana-

kamaadbhutam sva-bhavanam garuda-sano 'gat

 

Upon delivering the King of the elephants from the clutches of the crocodile, and from material existence, which resembles a crocodile, the Lord awarded him the status of sarupya-mukti. In the presence of the Gandharvas, the Siddhas and the other demigods, who were praising the Lord for His wonderful transcendental activities, the Lord, sitting on the back of His carrier, Garuda, returned to His all-wonderful abode and took Gajendra with Him.

 

10.46.32

yasmin janah prana-viyoga-kale

ksanam samavesya mano 'visuddham

nirhrtya karmasayam asu yati

param gatim brahma-mayo 'rka varnah

 

Anyone, even a person in an impure state, who absorbs his mind in Him for just a moment at the time of death burns up all traces of sinful reactions and immediately attains the supreme transcendental destination in a pure, spiritual form as effulgent as the sun.

 

11.14.18

badhyamano 'pi mad-bhakto

visayair ajitendriyah

prayah pragalbhaya bhaktya

visayair nabhibhuyate

 

My dear Uddhava, if My devotee has not fully conquered his senses, he may be harrassed by material desires, but because of his unflinching devotee for Me, he will not be defeated by sense gratification.

 

11.11.48

prayena bhakti-yogena

sat-sangena vinoddhava

nopayo vidyate samyak

prayanam hi satam aham

 

My dear Uddhava, I am personally the ultimate shelter and way of life for saintly liberated persons, and thus if one does not engage in My loving devotional service, which is made possible by associating with My devotees, then for all practical purposes, one possesses no effective means for escaping from material existence.

 

the supreme lord harmonizes all contradictory qualities within himself. his 'partiality' is therefore his impartiality.

(Vs. 2.1.37)

 

6.9.36

na hi virodha ubhayam bhagavaty aparimita-guna-gana isvare 'navagahya-ma hatmye 'rvacina-vikalpa-vitarka-vicara-pramanabhasakutarka-sastra-kalilantahkaranasraya-duravagraha-vadinam vivada-navasara uparata-samasta-mayamaye kevala evatma-mayam antardhaya ko nv artho durghata iva bhavati svarupa-dvayabhavat.

 


O Supreme Personality of Godhead, all contradictions can be reconciled in You. O Lord, since You are the Supreme Person, the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities, the supreme controller, Your unlimited glories are inconceivable to the conditioned souls. Many modern theologians argue about right and wrong without knowing what is actually right. Their arguments are always false and their judgments inconclusive because they have no authorized evidence with which to gain knowledge of You. Because their minds are agitated by scriptures containing false conclusions, they are unable to understand the truth concerning You. Furthermore, because of polluted eagerness to arrive at the right conclusion, their theories are incapable of reveal ing You, who are transcendental to their material conceptions. You are one without a second, and therefore in You contradictions like doing and not doing, happiness and distress, are not contradictory. Your potency is so great that it can do and undo anything as You like. With the help of that potency, what is impossible for You? Since there is no duality in Your constitutional position, You can do everything by the influence of Your energy.

 

10.16.33

naga-patnya ucuh

nyayyo hi dandah krta-kilbise 'smims

tavavatarah khala-nigrahaya

ripoh sutanam api tulya-drstir

dhatse damam phalam evanusamsan

 

The wives of the Kaliya serpent said: The punishment this offender has been subjected to is certainly just. After all, You have incarnated within this world to curb down envious and cruel persons. You are so impartial that You look equally upon Your enemies and Your own sons, for when You impose a punishment on a living being You know it to be for his ultimate benefit.

 

10.38.22

na tasya kascid dayitah suhrttamo

na capriyo dvesya upeksya eva va

tathapi bhaktan bhajate yatha tatha

sura drumo yadvad upasrito 'rtha-dah

 

The Supreme Lord has no favorite and no dearmost friend, nor does He consider anyone undesirable, despicable or fit to be neglected. All the same, He lovingly reciprocates with His devotees in whatever manner they worship Him, just as the trees of heaven fulfill the desires of whoever approaches them.

 

 

z

                                  

 


CHAPTER SIX              

 [Vedanta-sutra Reference: Second Adhyaya, Pada Two]

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter Six •

 

1. Atheistic Sankhya refuted.

2. Refutation of atomic theory.

3. Vaibhasika and Sautrantika Buddhism refuted.

4. Refutation of Yogacara Buddhism.

5. Madhyamika or Sunyavada Buddhism refuted.

6. Jainism refuted.

7. Pasupata Saivism refuted.

8. The Sakta doctrine refuted.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: Atheistic Sankhya Refuted.              

 

the pradhana (unmanifest material energy), being unconscious and therefore unintelligent, cannot be the creator of the universe.

(Vs. 2.2.1)

 

3.27.18

yatha gandhasya bhumes ca

na bhavo vyatirekatah

apam rasasya ca yatha

tatha buddheh parasya ca

 

As there is no separate existence of the earth and its aroma or of water and its taste, there cannot be any separate existence of intelligence and consciousness.

 

7.1.11

skalam carantam srjatia asrayam

pradhana-pumbhyam nara-deva satya-krt

 

O great King, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of the material and spiritual energies, who is certainly the creator of the entire cosmos, creates the time factor to allow the material energy and the living entity to act within the limits of time. Thus the Supreme Personality is never under the time factor nor under the material energy.

 

7.15.27

esa vai bhagavan saksat

pradhana-purusesvarah

yogesvarair vimrgyanghrir

loko yam manyate naram

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krsna, is the master of all other living entities and of the material nature. His lotus feet are sought and worshiped by great saintly persons like Vyasa. Nonetheless, there are fools who consider Lord Krsna an ordinary human being.

 

pradhana is inert. only when consciousness agitates pradhana do the three modes of nature stir to initiate the material manifestation.

(Vs. 2.2.2)

 

5.25.9

utpatti-sthiti-laya-hetavo 'sya kalpah

sattvadyah prakrti-guna-yad-iksayasan

yad-rupam dhruvam akrtam yad ekam atman

nanadhat katham u ha veda tasya vartma

 

By His glance, the Supreme Personality of Godhead enables the modes of material nature to act as the causes of universal creation, maintenance and destruction. The Supreme Soul is unlimited and beginningless, and although He is one, He has manifested Himself in many forms. How can human society understand the ways of the Supreme?

 

3.20.12

maitreya uvaca

daivena durvitarkyena

parenanimisena ca

jata-ksobhad bhagavato

mahan asid guna-trayat

 

Maitreya said: When the equilibrium of the combination of the three modes of nature was agitated by the unseen activity of the living entity, by Maha-Visnu and by the force of time, the total material elements were produced.

 

3.26.19

daivat ksubhita-dharminyam

svasyam yonau parah puman

adhatta viryam sasuta

mahat-tattvam hiranmayam

 

After the Supreme Personality of Godhead impregnates material nature with His internal potency, material nature delivers the sum total of the cosmic intelligence, which is known as Hiranmaya. This takes place in material nature when she is agitated by the destinations of the conditioned souls.

 

though it appears that material elements spontaneously interact to produce new effects (i.e. as when water produces sap and milk produces curd), these creations are guided by higher agency. similarly, the cosmic creation is not produced by pradhana's spontaneous interactions; it is directed by higher agency.

(Vs. 2.2.3)

 

6.9.21

sri-deva ucuh

vayv-ambaragny-ap-ksitayas tri-loka

brahmadayo ye vayam udvijantah

harama yasmai balim antako 'sau

bibheti yasmad aranam tato nah

 

The demigods said: The three worlds are created by the five elements—namely ether, air, fire, water and earth—which are controlled by various demigods, beginning from Lord Brahma. Being very much afraid that the time factor will end our existence, we offer presentations unto time by performing our work as time dictates. The time factor himself, however, is afraid of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore let us now worship that Supreme Lord, who alone can give us full protection.

 

the atheistic sankhya philosophers may argue that pradhana is the sole cause of the universe, but in fact their theory states that pradhana creates only when purusa is near. thus even the sankhya standpoint holds that matter does not act alone.

(Vs. 2.2.4)

 

6.4.32

astiti nastiti ca vastu-nisthayor

eka-sthayor bhinna-viruddha-dharmanoh

aveksitam kincana yoga-sankhyayoh

samam param hy anukulam brhat tat

 

There are two parties—namely, the theists and the atheists. The theist, who accepts the Supersoul, finds the spiritual cause through mystic yoga. The Sankhyite, however, who merely analyzes the material elements, comes to a conclusion of impersonalism and does not accept a supreme cause—whether Bhagavan, Paramatma or even Brahman. Instead, he is preoccupied with the superfluous, external activities of material nature. Ultimately, however, both parties demonstrate the Absolute Truth because although they offer opposing statements, their object is the same ultimate cause. They are both approaching the same Supreme Brahman, to whom I offer my respectful obeisances.

 

atheistic sankhya philosophers put forward examples of various creative interactions of material elements to support their theory that pradhana is the cause. but these examples only speak against their idea.

(Vs. 2.2.5)

 

10.85.6-8

pranadinam visva-srjam

saktayo yah parasya tah

paratantryad vaisadryad

dvayos cestaiva cestatam

 

Whatever potencies the life air and other elements of universal creation exhibit are actually all personal energies of the Supreme Lord, for both life and matter are subordinate to Him and dependent on Him, and also different from one another. Thus everything active in the material world is set into motion by the Supreme Lord.

 

kantis tejah prabha satta

candragny-arkarksa-vidyutam

yat sthairyam bhu-bhrtam bhumer

vrttir gandho 'rthato bhavan

 

The glow of the moon, the brilliance of fire, the radiance of the sun, the twinkling of the stars, the flash of lightening, the permanence of mountains and the aroma and sustaining power of the earth—all these are actually You.

 

tarpanam prananam apam

deva tvam tas ca tad-rasah

ojah saho balam cesta

gatir vayos tavesvara

 

My Lord, You are water, and also its taste and its capacities to quench thirst and sustain life. You exhibit You potencies through the manifestations of the air as bodily warmth, vitality, mental power, physical strength, endeavor and movement.

 

the atheistic sankhya philosophers claim pradhana offers herself to the individual souls to enjoy. thus enticed, the souls fall under her power. and after their material desires are completely satisfied, the souls are liberated by pradhana only. but in fact, the supreme lord is the only controller of material nature, the living entities and their desires.

(Vs. 2.2.6)

 


7.3.29

tvam isise jagatas tasthusas ca

pranena mukhyena patih prajanam

cittasya cittair mana-indriyanam

patir mahan bhuta-gunasayesah

 

Your Lordship, being the origin of the life of this material world, is the master and controller of the living entities, both moving and stationary, and you inspire their consciousness. You maintain the mind and the acting and knowledge-acquiring senses, and therefore you are the great controller of all the material elements and their qualities, and you are the controller of all desires.

 

the atheistic sankhya philosophers argue that material nature acts when it is near the consciousness of the living entities, like a piece of iron that moves when attracted by a nearby magnet. but matter and the  consciousness of the jivas are moved by the supreme lord, who is above them both.

(Vs. 2.2.7)

 

5.18.38

karoti visva-sthiti-samyamodayam

yasyepsitam nepsitam iksitur gunaih

maya yathayo bhramate tad-asrayam

gravno namas te guna-karma-saksine

 

O Lord, You do not desire the creation, maintenance or annihilation of this material world, but You perform these activities for the conditioned souls by Your creative energy. Exactly as a piece of iron moves under the influence of a lodestone, inert matter moves when You glance over the total material energy.

 

7.5.14

yatha bhramyaty ayo brahman

svayam akarsa-sannidhau

tatha me bhidyate cetas

cakra-paner yadrcchaya

 

O brahmanas [teachers], as iron attracted by a magnetic stone moves automatically toward the magnet, my consciousness, having been changed by His will, is attracted by Lord Visnu, who carries a disc in His hand. Thus I have no independence.

 

atheistic sankhya philosophy admits pradhana to be matter in equilibrium (i.e. when the three modes are balanced). it does not explain why the modes stir out of the balanced state, setting off the process of creation. it accepts neither that this is initiated by the supreme lord nor even by the time factor. the sankhya  explanation of causation is thus incomplete.

(Vs. 2.2.8)

 

10.13.53

kala-svabhava-samskara-

kama-karma-gunadibhih

sva-mahi-dhvasta-mahibhir

murtimadbhir upasitah

 


Then Lord Brahma saw that kala (the time factor), svabhava (one's own nature by association), samskara (reformation), kama (desire), karma (fruitive activity) and the gunas (the three modes of material nature), their own independence being completely subordinate to the potency of the Lord, had all taken forms and were also worshiping those visnu-murtis.

 

it is illusion to think that the three modes of material nature act separately from the power of the supremely intelligent personality of godhead.

(Vs. 2.2.9)

 

11.10.32

yavat syad guna-vaisamyam

tavan nanatvam atmanah

nanatvam atmano yavat

paratantryam tadaiva hi

 

As long as the living entity thinks that the modes of material nature have separate existences, he will be obliged to take birth in many different forms and will experience varieties of material existence. Therefore, the living entity remains completely dependent on fruitive activities under the modes of nature.

 

the atheistic sankhya philosophy is fraught with many contradictions. the sankhya philosophers do not clearly explain whether the living entity is conscious or unconscious, or why the living entity is bound to or liberated from matter.

(Vs. 2.2.10)

 

3.7.5

desatah kalato yo 'sav

avasthatah svato 'nyatah

aviluptavabodhatma

sa yujyetajaya katham

 

The pure soul is pure consciousness and is never out of consciousness, either due to circumstances, time, situations, dreams or other causes. How then does he become engaged in nescience?

 

2.9.1

sri-suka uvaca

atma-mayam rte rajan

parasyan ubhavatmanah

na ghatetartha-sambandhah

svapna-drastur ivanjasa

 

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, unless one is influenced by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there is no meaning to the relationship of the pure soul in pure consciousness with the material body. That relationship is just like a dreamer's seeing his own body working.

 

11.11.1

sri-bhagavan uvaca

baddho mukta iti vyakhya

gunato me na vastunah

gunasya maya-mulatvan

na me mokso na bandhanam

 


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, due to the influence of the material modes of nature, which are under My control, the living entity is sometimes designated as conditioned and sometimes as liberated. In fact, however, the soul is never really bound up or liberated, and since I am the supreme Lord of maya, which is the cause of the modes of nature, I also am never to be considered liberated or in bondage.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: Refutation Of Atomic Theory.             

 

the vaisesika philosophy posits that 1) atoms have no dimension; 2) atoms combine into molecules that have dimension; 3) atoms combine because of adrsta-karma (unseen fate); 4) atoms combine in fixed predictable patterns because of samavaya (eternal inherent relationship); 5) atoms possess the qualities of form, taste, aroma and touch.

 

if atoms are without dimension, then there is no logic in arguing that physical dimensions arise from their combination.

(Vs. 2.2.11)

 

3.11.1-5

maitreya uvaca

caramah sad-visesanam

aneko 'samyutah sada

paramanuh sa vijneyo

nrnam aikya-bhramo yatah

 

The material manifestation's ultimate particle, which is indivisible and not formed into a body, is called the atom. It exists always as an invisible identity, even after the dissolution of all forms. The material body is but a combination of such atoms, but it is misunderstood by the common man.

 

sata eva padarthasya

svarupavasthitasya yat

kaivalyam parama-mahan

aviseso nirantarah

 

Atoms are the ultimate state of the manifest universe. When they stay in their own forms without forming different bodies, they are called the unlimited oneness. There are certainly different bodies in physical forms, but the atoms themselves form the complete manifestation.

 

evam kalo 'py anumitah

sauksmye sthaulye ca sattama

samsthana-bhuktya bhagavan

avyakto vyakta-bhug vibhuh

 

One can estimate time by measuring the movement of the atomic combination of bodies. Time is the potency of the almighty Personality of Godhead, Hari, who controls all physical movement although He is not visible in the physical world.

 

sa halah paramanur vai

yo bhunkte paramanutam

sato 'visesa-bhug yas tu

sa halah paramo mahan

 

Atomic time is measured according to its covering a particular atomic space. That time which covers the unmanifest aggregate of atoms is called the great time.

 

anur dvau paramanu syat

trasarenus trayah smrtah

jalarka-rasmy-avagatah

kham evanupatann agat

 

The division of gross time is calculated as follows: two atoms make one double atom, and three double atoms make one hexatom. This hexatom is visible in the sunshine which enters through the holes of a window screen. One can clearly see that the hexatom goes up towards the sky.

 

atoms are not set into motion by adrsta-karma, for adrsta-karma pertains to the pious and impious reactions of living entities, not particles of matter.

(Vs. 2.2.12)

 

6.1.54

labdhva nimittam avyaktam

vyaktavyaktam bhavaty uta

yatha-yoni yatha-bijam

svabhavena baliyasa

 

The fruitive activities a living being performs, whether pious or impious, are the unseen cause for the fulfillment of his desires. This unseen cause is the root for the living entity's different bodies. Because of his intense desire, the living entity takes birth in a particular family and receives a body which is either like that of his mother or like that of his father. The gross and subtle bodies are created according to his desire.

 

3.11.13

graharksa-tara-cakra-sthah

paramanv-adina jagat

samvatsaravasanena

paryety animiso vibhuh

 

Influential stars, planets, luminaries and atoms all over the universe are rotating in their respective orbits under the direction of the Supreme, represented by eternal kala.

 

the theory of samavaya does not explain why atoms combine as they do. by declaring samavaya to be an eternal principle inherent in atoms, the vaisesika philosophers imply atomic combinations to be eternal. but this is not a fact. even vaisesika philosophy admits this.

(Vs. 2.2.13-14)

 

5.12.9

evam niruktam ksiti-sabda-vrttam

asan nidhanat paramanavo ye

avidyaya manasa kalpitas te

yesam samuhena krto visesah

 

One may say that varieties arise from the planet earth itself. However, although the universe may temporarily appear to be the truth, it ultimately has no real existence. The earth was originally created by a combination of atomic particles, but these particles are impermanent. Actually the atom is not the cause of the universe, although some philosophers think so. It is not a fact that the varieties found in this material world simply result from atomic juxtaposition or combination.

 

the vaisesika philosophers declare atoms to be eternal and dimensionless. they say they possess form, taste, aroma and touch. this is contradictory, because temporary things with dimension possess these same varieties.

(Vs. 2.2.15-16)

 

5.12.9

evam niruktam ksiti-sabda-vrttam

asan nidhanat paramanavo ye

avidyaya manasa kalpitas te

yesam samuhena krto visesah

 

One may say that varieties arise from the planet earth itself. However, although the universe may temporarily appear to be the truth, it ultimately has no real existence. The earth was originally created by a combination of atomic particles, but these particles are impermanent. Actually the atom is not the cause of the universe, although some philosophers think so. It is not a fact that the varieties found in this material world simply result from atomic juxtaposition or combination.

 

great sages do not accept the vaisesika philosophy; therefore it is to be rejected.

(Vs. 2.2.17)

 

5.12.11

jnanam visuddham paramartham ekam

anantaram tv abahir brahma satyam

pratyak pras-antam bhagavac-chabda-samjnam

yad vasudevam kavayo vadanti

 

What, then, is the ultimate truth? The answer is that nondual knowledge is the ultimate truth. It is devoid of the contamination of material qualities. It gives us liberation. It is the one without a second, all-pervading and beyond imagination. The first realization of that knowledge is Brahman. Then Paramatma, the Supersoul, is realized by the yogis who try to see Him without grievance. This is the second stage of realization. Finally, full realization of the same supreme knowledge is realized in the Supreme Person. All learned scholars describe the Supreme Person as Vasudeva, the cause of Brahman, Paramatma and others.

 

 

Adhikarana 3: Vaibhasika And Sautrantika Buddhism Refuted.     

 

within buddhism, there are four doctrinal schools: 1) vaibhasika—direct realism, 2) sautrantika—representationalism, 3) yogacara or vijnanavada—subjective idealism, and 4) madhyamika or sunyavada—voidism.

 

the first two schools divide the material world into two categories of phenomena: physical and mental (or external and internal). under these categories are listed five 'skandhas.' one skandha, called rupa (including the elements earth, water, fire, air and the forms that are constructed of these), comprises all physical phenomena. the other four skandhas comprise mental phenomena. they are: vijnana (the stream of consciousness that is the ego); vedana (perception of pleasure and pain); sanjna (names and words); and samskara (emotional impressions like hatred, love, etc.). nothing exists beyond these categories, according to the vaibhasika and sautrantika buddhists.

 

even if the validity of these categories is accepted, they still do not account for everything in the universe, for the spiritual nature of the supersoul and the living entities is left out.

(Vs. 2.2.18)

 

10.87.19

sva-krta-vicitra-yonisu visann iva hetutaya

taratamatas cakassy anala-vat sva-krtanukrtih

atha vitathasv amusv avitatham tava dhama samam

viraja-dhiyo 'nuyanty abhivipanyava eka-rasam

 

Apparently entering among the variegated species of living beings You have created, You inspire them to act, manifesting Yourself according to their higher and lower positions, just as fire manifests differently according to the shape of what it burns. Therefore those of spotless intelligence, who are altogether free from material attachments, realize Your undifferentiated, unchanging Self to be the permanent reality among all these impermanent life forms.

 

11.2.37

bhayam dvitiyabhinivesatah syad

isad apetasya vipaiyayo'smrtih

tan-mayayato budha abhajet tam

bhaktyaikayesam guru-devatatma

 

When the living entity is attracted by the material energy, which is separate from Krsna, he is overpowered by fear. Because he is separated from the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the material energy, his conception of life is reversed. In other words, instead of being the eternal servant of Krsna, he becomes Krsna's competitor. This is caIled viparyayo'smrtih. To nullify this mistake, one who is actually learned and advanced worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead as his spiritual master, worshipful Deity and source of life. He thus worships the Lord by the process of unalloyed devotional service.

 

11.11.5-8

atha baddhasya muktasya

vailaksanyam vadami te

viruddha-dharminos tata

sthitayor eka-dharmini

 

Thus, my dear Uddhava, in the same material body we find opposing characteristics, such as great happiness and misery. That is because both the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternally liberated, as well as the conditioned soul are within the body. I shall now speak to you about their different characteristics.

 

suparnav etau sadrsau sakhayay

yadrcchayaitau krta-nidau ca vrkse

ekas tayoh khadati pippalannam

anyo niranno 'pi balena bhuyan

 

By chance, two birds have made a nest together in the same tree. The two birds are friends and are of a similar nature. One of them, however, is eating the fruits of the tree, whereas the other, who does not eat the fruits, is in a superior position due to His potency.

 

atmanam anyam ca sa veda vidvan

apippalado na tu pippaladah

yo 'vidyaya yuk sa tu nitya-baddho

vidya-mayo yah sa tu nitya-muktah

 

The bird who does not eat the fruits of the tree is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who by His omniscience perfectly understands His own position and that of the conditioned living entity, represented by the eating bird. That living entity, on the other hand, does not understand himself or the Lord. He is covered by ignorance and is thus called eternally conditioned, whereas the Personality of Godhead, being full of perfect knowledge, is eternally liberated.

 

deha-stho 'pi na deha-stho

vidvan svapnad yathotthitah

adeha-stho 'pi deha-stha

kumatih svapna-drg yatha

 

One who is enlightened in self-realization, although living within the material body, sees himself as transcendental to the body, just as one who has arisen from a dream gives up identification with the dream body. A foolish person, however, although not identical with his material body but transcendental to it, thinks himself to be situated in the body, just as one who is dreaming sees himself as situated in an imaginary body.

 

objection: the starting point of psychophysical phenomena is not spiritual or conscious. the starting point is ignorance (avidya). ignorance sets into motion an ever-turning causal cycle of twelve phases: 1) past impressions (samskaras), 2) initial awareness (vijnana), 3) the psychophysical organism (namarupa), 4) the six organs of cognition (sadayatana), 5) the contact of the senses with their objects (sparsa), 6) previous sense experience (vedana), 7) thirst to enjoy (trsna), 8) mental attachment (upadana), 9) the will to be (bhava), 10) birth (jati), 11) old age and death (jaramarana), and 12) ignorance again.

 

reply: these twelve are only secondary causes.

(Vs. 2.2.19)

 

11.16.36-37

gaty-ukty-utsargopadanam

ananda-sparsa-laksanam

asvada-struty-avaghranam

aham sarvendriyendriyam

 

I am the functions of the five working senses—the legs, speech, anus, hands and sex organs—as well as those of the five knowledge-acquiring senses—touch, sight, taste, hearing and smell. I am also the potency by which each of the senses experiences its particular sense object.

 

prithivi vayur akasa

apo jyotir aham mahan

vikarah puruso 'vyaktam

rajah sattvam tamah param

aham etat prasankhyanam

jnanam tattva-vinisciayah

 

I am form, taste, aroma, touch, and sound; false ego; the mahat-tattva; earth, water, fire, air and sky; the living entity; material nature; the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance; and the transcendental Lord. All these items, along with knowledge of their individual symptoms and the steady conviction that results from this knowledge, represents Me.

 


buddhists adhere to a doctrine of ever-changing equilibrium, in which an effect is said to exist only when its cause has ceased to exist (e.g. a tree is only when the seed is no longer). that effect will cease to exist as soon as it becomes the cause of another effect. such change takes place everywhere at every moment. thus physical and mental existence is but a stream of corollary events that flash by like the frames of a motion picture film. accordingly, avidya simply appears and disappears, to be followed by the appearance and disappearance of the samskaras, vijnana, etc., one after another.

 

but ever-changing equilibrium forbids any permanent governing principle around which the twelve phases of causation may revolve. the cycle of twelve causes is thus like a wheel of twelve spokes that has no axle on which to turn. if there is no fundamental principle behind the twelve phases, why do the buddhists describe them as progressing in a set order?

(Vs. 2.2.20)

 

8.5.28

ajasya cakram tv ajayeryamanam

manomayam pancadasaram asu

tri-nabhi vidyuc-calam asta-nemi

yad-aksam ahus tam rtam prapadye

 

In the cycle of material activities, the material body resembles the wheel of a mental chariot. The ten senses [five for working and five for gathering knowledge] and the five life airs within the body form the fifteen spokes of the chariot's wheel. The three modes of nature [goodness, passion and ignorance] are its center of activities, and the eight ingredients of nature [earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intelligence and false ego] comprise the rim of the wheel. The external, material energy moves this wheel like electrical energy. Thus the wheel revolves very quickly around its hub or central support, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the Supersoul and the ultimate truth. We offer our respectful obeisances unto Him.

 

the substratum of causation cannot be nothingness. if it were, then anything would manifest from anywhere at any time. positing nothingness as the ultimate substratum of everything would also violate ever-changing equilibrium—for then nothingness itself would be an uninterrupted constant.

(Vs. 2.2.21)

 

10.87.24

ka iha nu veda batavara-janma-layo 'gra-saram

yata udagad rsir yam anu deva-gana ubhaye

tarhi na san na casad ubhayam na ca kala-javah

kim api na tatra sastram avakrsya sayita yada

 

Everyone in this world has recently been born and will soon die. So how can anyone here know Him who existed prior to everything else and who gave rise to the first learned sage, Brahma, and all subsequent demigods, both lesser and greater? When He lies down and withdraws everything within Himself, nothing else remains—no gross or subtle matter or bodies composed of these, no force of time or revealed scripture.

 

10.87.29

sthira-cara-jatayah syur ajayottha-nimitta-yujo

vihara udiksaya yadi parasya vimukta tatah

na hi paramasya kascid aparo na paras ca bhaved

viyata ivapadasya tava sunya-tulam dadhatah

 

O eternally liberated, transcendental Lord, Your material energy causes the various moving and nonmoving species of life to appear by activating their material desires, but only when and if You sport with her by briefly glancing at her. You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, see no one as an intimate friend and no one as a stranger, just as the ethereal sky has no connection with perceptible qualities. In this sense You resemble a void.

 

the buddhist theory of 'nirodha' (total annihilation) is false. there is no ultimate annhilation of anything, because the substance (vastu) of all things is permanent, though it is subject to transformation.

(Vs. 2.2.22)

 

1.5.20

idam hi visvam bhagavan ivetaro

yato jagat-sthana-nirodha-sambhavah

tad dhi svayam veda bhavams tathapi te

pradesa-matram bhavatah pradarsitam

 

The Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead is Himself this cosmos, and still He is aloof from it. From Him only has this cosmic manifestation emanated, in Him it rests, and unto Him it enters after annihilation. Your good self knows all about this. I have given only a synopsis.

 

5.18.6

visvodbhava-sthana-nirodha-karma te

hy akartur angikrtam apy apavrtah

yuktam na citram tvayi karya-karane

sarvatmani vyatirikte ca vastutah

 

O Lord, although You are completely detached from the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this material world and are not directly affected by these activities, they are all attributed to You. We do not wonder at this, for Your inconceivable energies perfectly qualify You to be the cause of all causes. You are the active principle in everything, although You are separate from everything. Thus we can realize that everything is happening because of Your inconceivable energy.

 

the buddhists define liberation as the total annihilation of the causal cycle of twelve phases. they speak of 'pratisankhya-nirodha,' a form of annihilation in which conscious will takes part, and 'apratisankhya-nirodha,' which occurs without conscious effort. if liberation is to be achieved by the first nirodha, then what is the use of the second conception of nirodha? and if liberation is to be achieved by the second nirodha, what is the use of the disciplinary and meditational efforts practiced by buddhists to get release from the causal cycle?

(Vs. 2.2.23)

 

2.10.6

nirodho 'syanusayanam

atmanah saha saktibhih

muktir hitvanyatha rupam

sva-rupena vyavasthitih

 

The merging of the living entity, along with his conditional living tendency, with the mystic lying down of the Maha-Visnu is called the winding up of the cosmic manifestation. Liberation is the permanent situation of the form of the living entity after he gives up the changeable gross and subtle material bodies.

 


7.7.37

adhoksajalambham ihasubhatmanah

saririnah samsrti-cakra-satanam

tad brahma-nirvana-sukham vidur budhas

tato bhajadhvam hrdaye hrd-isvaram

 

The real problem of life is the repetition of birth and death, which is like a wheel rolling repeatedly up and down. This wheel, however, completely stops when one is in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In other words, by the transcendental bliss realized from constant engagement in devotional service, one is completely liberated from material existence. All learned men know this. Therefore, my dear friends, O sons of the asuras, immediately begin meditating upon and worshiping the Supersoul within everyone's heart.

 

the buddhists define akasa (ethereal space) as a state of nirodha. but akasa is an element of creation.

(Vs. 2.2.24)

 

3.36.32, 34

tamasac ca vikurvanad

bhagavad-virya-coditat

sabda-matram abhut tasman

nabhah srotram tu sabdagam

 

When egoism in ignorance is agitated by the sex energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the subtle element sound is manifested, and from sound come the ethereal sky and the sense of hearing.

 

bhutanam chidra-datrtvam

bahir antaram eva ca

pranendriyatma-dhisnyatvam

nabhaso vrtti-laksanam

 

The activities and characteristics of the ethereal element can be observed as accommodation for the room for the external and internal existences of all living entities, namely the field of activities of the vital air, the senses and the mind.

 

the theory of ever-changing equilibrium is refuted by the fact of memory. memory demonstrates consciousness as the constant factor behind the changing appearances of matter.

(Vs. 2.2.25)

 

3.26.30

samsayo 'tha viparyaso

niscayah smrtir eva ca

svapa ity ucyate buddher

laksanam vrttitah prthak

 

Doubt, misapprehension, correct apprehension, memory and sleep, as determined by their different functions, are said to be the distinct characteristics of intelligence.

 

3.27.18

yatha gandhasya bhumes ca

na bhavo vyatirekatah

apam rasasya ca yatha

tatha buddheh parasya ca

 

As there is no separate existence of the earth and its aroma or of water and its taste, there cannot be any separate existence of intelligence and consciousness.

 

3.7.5

desatah kalato yo 'sav

avasthatah svato 'nyatah

aviluptavabodhatma

sa yujyetajaya katham

 

The pure soul is pure consciousness and is never out of consciousness, either due to circumstances, time, situations, dreams or other causes. How then does he become engaged in nescience?

 

the sautrantikas attempt to explain the persistence of memory by their doctrine of representationalism. they say that external objects are not perceived as such. but they influence consciousness to represent the objects through internal forms (ideas) that are created from consciousness itself. though external objects vanish from moment to moment in the stream of ever-changing equilibrium, they continue to exist as ideas or memories.

 

it is not logical to posit the persistence of the name, form etc. of an ephemeral external object in an internal representation, because the substance of consciousness is also ephemeral according to buddhist philosophy.

 

in fact there is an internal reality to all ephemeral things, though the sautrantika doctrine does not propound it.

(Vs. 2.2.26)

 

1.1.2

dharmah projjhita-kaitavo 'tra paramo nirmatsaranam satam

vedyam vastavam atra vastu sivadam tapa-trayonmulanam

srimad-bhagavate maha-muni-krte kim va parair isvarah

sadyo hrdy avarudhyate 'tra krtibhih susrusubhis tat-ksanat

 

Completely rejecting all religious activities which are materially motivated, this Bhagavata Purana propounds the highest truth, which is understandable by those devotees who are fully pure in heart. The highest truth is reality distinguished from illusion for the welfare of all. Such truth uproots the threefold miseries. This beautiful Bhagavatam, compiled by the great sage Vyasadeva [in his maturity], is sufficient in itself for God realization. What is the need of any other scripture? As soon as one attentively and submissively hears the message of Bhagavatam, by this culture of knowledge the Supreme Lord is established within his heart.

 

11.22.51

prakrter evam atmanam

avivicyabudhah puman

tattvena sparsa-sammudhah

samsaram pratipadyate

 

An unintelligent man, failing to distinguish himself from material nature, thinks nature to be real. By contact with it he becomes completely bewildered and enters into the cycle of material existence.

 


11.22.45

so 'yam dipo 'rcisam yadvat

srotasam tad idam jalam

so 'yam puman iti nrnam

mrsa gir dhir mrsayusam

 

Although the illumination of a lamp consists of innumerable rays of light undergoing constant creation, transformation and destruction, a person with illusory intelligence who sees the light for a moment will speak falsely, saying, "This is the light of the lamp." As one observes a flowing river, ever-new water passes by and goes far away, yet a foolish person, observing one point in the river, falsely states, "This is the water of the river." Similarly, although the material body of a human being is constantly undergoing transformation, those who are simply wasting their lives falsely think and say that each particular stage of the body is the person's real identity.

 

if all existence is simply an ever-changing equilibrium, then there could be no steady motivation to attain anything. a person, his desire and his goal would be but unique events that exist only for a moment, to be replaced by a different person, desire and goal in the next moment. as there is no permanent substratum to determine the order of events, results would appear without a real cause. thus it would be useless to direct one's efforts to attain a result. simply by his existence in a fortuitous instant of time, a person who does nothing would attain his desired goal. yet buddhists direct themselves to the future goal of liberation.

 

the explanation of cause and effect of the vaibhasika and sautrantika doctrines is contradictory.

(Vs. 2.2.27)

 

8.12.8

ekas tvam eva sad asad dvayam advayam ca

svarnam krtakrtam iveha na vastu-bhedah

ajnanatas tvayi janair vihito vikalpo

yasmad guna-vyatikaro nirupadhikasya

 

My dear Lord, Your Lordship alone is the cause and the effect. Therefore, although You appear to be two, You are the absolute one. As there is no difference between the gold of a golden ornament and the gold in a mine, there is no difference between cause and effect; both of them are the same. Only because of ignorance do people concoct differences and dualities. You are free from material contamination, and since the entire cosmos is caused by You and cannot exist without You, it is an effect of Your transcendental qualities. Thus the conception that Brahman is true and the world false cannot be maintained.

 

 

Adhikarana 4: Refutation Of Yogacara Buddhism.           

 

the yogacara or vijnanavada doctrine is subjective idealism. accordingly, there is no objective reality (i.e. the external world does not exist). there are only subjective ideas (i.e. the thoughts about the world conceived by the subject or individual). perceptions of the material world arise from these ideas and therefore have no existence apart from thought. ideas arise from desire. thus 'reality' is only a state of mind.

 

but in fact perception consists of three factors: the perceiver (adhyatma), the thing perceived (adhibhuta) and the perception (adhidaiva).

(Vs. 2.2.28)

11.22.30-32

mamanga maya guna-mayy anekadha

vikalpa-buddhis ca gunair vidhatte

vaikarikas tri-vidho 'dhyatmam ekam

athadhidaivam adhibhutam anyat

 

My dear Uddhava, My material energy, comprising three modes and acting through them, manifests the varieties of creation along with varieties of consciousness for perceiving them. The manifest result of material transformation is understood in three aspects: adyatmic, adhidaivic and adhibhautic.

 

drg rupam arkam vapur atra randhre

parasparam sidhyati yah svatah khe

atma yad esam aparo ya adyah

svayanubhutyakhila-siddha-siddhih

 

Sight, visible form and the reflected image of the sun within the aperture of the eye all work together to reveal one another. But the original sun standing in the sky is self-manifested. Similarly, the Supreme Soul, the original cause of all entities, who is thus separate from all of them, acts by the illumination of His own transcendental experience as the ultimate source of manifestation of all mutually manifesting objects.

 

evam tva-adi sravanadi caksur

jihvadi nasadi ca citta-yuktam

 

Similarly, the sense organs, namely the skin, ears, eyes, tongue, and nose—as well as the functions of the subtle body, namely conditioned consciousness, mind, intelligence and false ego—can all be analyzed in terms of the threefold distinction of sense, object of perception and presiding deity.

 

11.22.34

atmaparijnana-mayo vivado

hy astiti nastiti bhidartha-nistah

vyartho 'pi naivoparameta pumsam

mattah paravrtta-dhiyam sva-lokat

 

The speculative argument of philosopers—"This world is real," "No, it is not real"—is based upon incomplete knowledge of the Supreme Soul and is simply aimed at understanding material dualities. Although such argument is useless, persons who have turned their attention away from Me, their own true Self, are unable to give it up.

 

yogacara buddhists argue that the perceivable world exists in the same way as a dream does. but a dream consists of memories of wakeful perceptions. wakeful perceptions persist day after day, but dreams, being mere mental images, do not persist. dream images may change abruptly. when a person wakes from a dream, he knows it to be unreal. but people do not 'awaken' from wakeful perceptions in the same way that they awaken from sleep. dreams and wakefulness are therefore two different states of material consciousness.

 

still, the vedic version is that the wakeful state of material consciousness is also a dream. but it is a dream created by the supreme lord, as too are the dreams of sleep. dreams, whether in sleep or the wakeful state, are not independently created by the minds of living entities.

(Vs. 2.2.29)


4.29.2b

adrstam drstavan nanksed

bhutam svapnavad anyatha

bhutam bhavad bhavisyac ca

suptam sarva-raho-rahah

 

Everything happening within time, which consists of past, present and future, is merely a dream. That is the secret understanding in all Vedic literature.

 

6.16.53-54

yatha susuptah puruso

visvam pasyati catmani

atmanam eka-desa-stham

manyate svapna utthitah

 

evam jagaranadini

jiva-sthanani catmanah

maya-matrani vijnaya

tad-drastaram param smaret

 

When a person is in deep sleep, he dreams and sees in himself many other objects, such as great mountains and rivers or perhaps even the entire universe, although they are far away. Sometimes when one awakens from a dream he sees that he is in a human form, lying in his bed in one place. Then he sees himself, in terms of various conditions, as belonging to a particular nationality, family and so on. All the conditions of deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness are but energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should always remember the original creator of these conditions, the Supreme Lord, who is unaffected by them.

 

11.13.27, 28

jagrat svapnah susuptam va

gunato buddhi-vrttayah

tasam vilaksano jivah

saksitvena viniscitah

 

Waking, sleeping, and deep sleep are the three functions of the intelligence and are caused by the modes of material nature. The living entity within the body is ascertained to possess characteristics different from these three states and thus remains as a witness to them.

 

yarhi samsrti-bandho 'yam

atma guna-vrtti-dah

mayi turye sthito jahyat

tyagas tad guna-cetasam

 

The spirit soul is trapped in the bondage of material intelligence, which awards him constant engagement in the illusory modes of nature. But I am the fourth stage of consciousness, beyond wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep. Becoming situated in Me, the soul should give up the bondage of material consciousness. At that time, the living entity will automatically renounce the material sense objects and the material mind.

 

the yogacara doctrine falsely claims that the perceptions of the mind arise from material desire. in fact the reverse is true—material desire arises from the perceptions of the mind, i.e. the contemplation of external sense objects.

(Vs. 2.2.31)

 


11.22.37, 38

sri-bhagavan uvaca

manah karma-mayam nrnam

indriyaih pancabhir yutam

lokal lokam prayaty anya

atma tad anuvartate

 

Lord Krsna said: The material mind of men is shaped by the reactions of fruitive work. Along with the five senses, it travels from one material body to another. The spirit soul, although different from this mind, follows it.

 

dhyayan mano 'nu visayan

drstan vanusrutan atha

udyat sidat karma-tantram

smrtis tad anu samyati

 

The mind, bound to the reactions of fruitive work, always meditates on the objects of the senses, both those that are seen in this world and those that are heard about from Vedic authority. Consequently, the mind appears to come into being and to suffer annihilation along with its objects of perception, and thus its ability to distinguish past and future is lost.

 

3.27.4

arthe hy avidyamane 'pi

samsrtir na nivartate

dhyayato visayan asya

svapne 'narthagamo yatha

 

Actually a living entity is transcendental to material existence, but because of his mentality of lording it over material nature, his material existential condition does not cease, and just as in a dream, he is affected by all sorts of disadvantages.

 

like other doctrines of buddhism, vijnanavada adheres to the notion of ever-changing equilibrium. there is therefore no permanent substratum upon which desires can be maintained.

(Vs. 2.2.31)

 

7.3.29

tvam iise jagatas tasthusas ca

pranena mukhyena patih prajanam

cittasya cittair mana-indriyanam

patir mahan bhuta-gunasayesah

 

Your Lordship, being the origin of the life of this material world, is the master and controller of the living entities, both moving and stationary, and you inspire their consciousness. You maintain the mind and the acting and knowledge-acquiring senses, and therefore you are the great controller of all the material elements and their qualities, and you are the controller of all desires.

 

 


Adhikarana 5: Madhyamika Or Sunyavada Buddhism Refuted.      

 

the madhyamika doctrine is sunyavada or voidism. it claims that existence itself is a contradiction, for according to the buddhist theory of ever-changing equilibrium, all things that now exist arose from the destruction of other things, just as trees arose from now-destroyed seeds. thus existence does not arise from another existence. voidism argues that existence does not arise out of nonexistence (abhava) either, just as a tree cannot arise from a roasted seed. it further claims that existence does not arise from itself, for that view would support the doctrine of atma (permanent identity), which the buddha rejected. nor does existence arise in any other way that might be considered. therefore there is no creation. if there is no creation, then there is no destruction. creation, destruction, cause, effect, being and non-being are all unreal. the only reality is sunya, void. void requires no explanation of origin, for it is self-existent and self-proved.

 

but in fact the void theory disproves itself, for if all the means of knowledge and argument are unreal, then the void theory cannot be established.

(Vs. 2.2.32)

 

7.15.58

abadhito 'pi hy abhaso

yatha vastutaya smrtah

durghatatvad aindriyakam

tadvad artha-vikalpitam

 

Although one may consider the reflection of the sun from a mirror to be false, it has its factual existence. Accordingly, to prove by speculative knowledge that there is no reality would be extremely difficult.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: Jainism Refuted.                   

 

the jain doctrine divides the world into two categories of the living (jiva) and non-living (ajiva). living entities are eternal and have consciousness, intelligence, and senses. souls have the same size of their material bodies. nonlife is of five kinds: dharma (piety), dharma (impiety), pudgala (the material bodies), kala (time) and akasa (space). dharma causes motion. adharma causes immovabiity. a single type of atom comprises all material elements. time is also an atomic element. within the jain prescription for so-called liberation are seven factors: the jiva, matter, the senses, the exhaustion of passion, the obstructions on the path, bondage (samsara) and relase (moksa). there are four kinds of bad karmas (ghatika karma) and four kinds of good karma (aghatika karma); the jiva is released from the eight karmas by right knowledge, right seeing and right conduct as taught in the jain scriptures. liberation is accomplished by the jiva remaining stationary in the 'aloka-akasa', the space beyond all worlds, or by ever moving towards higher and higher realms.

 

jainism views all other philosophies as being comprised of one of seven standpoints: that the truth is either 1) existence, 2) nonexistence, 3) existence and nonexistence, 4) different from existence and non-existence, 5) different from existence during existence, 6) different from non-existence during non-existence, 7) different from both existence and non-existence during both. to defeat these standpoints the jains apply a seven-fold system of reason called syadvada. syadvada argues that while the ingredients of things are real or eternal, their modifications are unreal or temporary. the seven standpoints of other philosophies cannot account for the essentially contradictory nature of all things. the proper view is that nothing is certain.

 

this jain doctrine of uncertainty is wrong, because contradiction is untenable. it is not 'uncertain' whether people drink water instead of fire to quench their thirsts. it is not 'uncertain' whether there is a difference between heaven and hell. if all things inherently were uncertain, then it would not be possible to establish a specific path to some goal, as the jains themselves have done.

(Vs. 2.2.33)

 

11.22.34

atmaparijnana-mayo vivado

hy astiti nastiti bhidartha-nistah

vyartho 'pi naivoparameta pumsam

mattah paravrtta-dhiyam sva-lokat

 

The speculative argument of philosopers—"This world is real," "No, it is not real"—is based upon incomplete knowledge of the Supreme Soul and is simply aimed at understanding material dualities. Although such argument is useless, persons who have turned their attention away from Me, their own true Self, are unable to give it up.

 

the standpoint of the soul having the same size as the material body it possesses contradicts the standpoints of transmigration and the immortality of the soul. if the soul is eternal and yet has size, then its size is also eternal. a soul leaving an adult human body could not fit into another kind of body, not even another human body within the womb.

 

in truth the spirit soul is extremely subtle (or small). though he moves from body to body, his own identity is fixed. material categories like 'size' pertain only to the gross and subtle bodies.

(Vs. 2.2.34)

6.16.9

esa nityo 'vyayah suksma

esa sarvasrayah svadrk

atmamaya-gunair visvam

atmanam srjate prabhuh

 

The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.

 

4.20.11

udasinam ivadhyaksam

dravya jnana-kriyatmanam

kuta-stham imam atmanam

yo vedapnoti sobhanam

 

Anyone who knows that this material body, made of the five gross elements, the sense organs, the working senses and the mind, is simply supervised by the fixed soul is eligible to be liberated from material bondage.

 


5.10.10

sthaulyam karsyam vyadhaya adhayas ca

ksut trd bhayam kalir iccha jara ca

nidra ratir manyur aham madah suco

dehena jatasya hi me na santi

 

Fatness, thinness, bodily and mental distress, thirst, hunger, fear, disagreement, desires for material happiness, old age, sleep, attachment for material possessions, anger, lamentation, illusion and identification of the body with the self are all transformations of the material covering of the spirit soul. A person absorbed in the material bodily conception is affected by these things, but I am free from all bodily conceptions. Consequently I am neither fat nor skinny nor anything else you have mentioned.

 

7.7.3

dehas tu sarva-sanghato

jagat tasthur iti dvidha

atraiva mrgyah puruso

neti netity atat tyajan

 

There are two kinds of bodies for every individual soul—a gross body made of five gross elements and a subtle body made of three subtle elements. Within these bodies, however, is the spirit soul. One must find the soul by analysis, saying, "This is not it. This is not it." Thus one must separate spirit from matter.

 

the jains may claim that in accordance with their doctrine of of uncertainty, the soul's size is indefinite and can therefore change to fit the size of any body it may enter. that would meant the soul is subject to change; such an idea is false.

(Vs. 2.2.35)

 

11.3.38

natma jajana na marisyati naidhate 'sau

na ksiyate savana-vid vyabhicarinam hi

sarvatra sasvad anapayy upalabdhi-matram

prano yathendriya-balena vikalpitam sat

 

Brahman, the eternal soul, was never born and will never die, nor does it grow or decay. That spiritual soul is actually the knower of the youth, middle age and death of the material body. Thus the soul can be understood to be pure consciousness, existing everywhere at all times and never being destroyed. Just as the life air within the body, although one, becomes manifest as many in contact with the various material senses, the one soul appears to assume various material designation in contact with the material body.

 

there is no difference between the jain conceptions of liberation and of worldly existence. both are said to be eternal. of the two types of jain liberation (suspension in the aloka akasa, and endless upward motion), neither are actual transcendental situations. neither will satisfy the spirit soul.

(Vs. 2.2.36)

 

11.14.9

man-maya-mohita-dhiyah

purusah purusasabha

srayo vadanty anekantam

yatha-karma yatha-ruci

 

O best among men, the intelligence of human beings is bewildered by My illusory potency, and thus, according to their own activities and whims, they speak in innumerable ways about what is actually good for people.

 

5.6.9

yasya kilanucaritam upakarnya konka-venka-kutakanam rajarhan-namopasiksya kalav adharma utkrsyamane bhavitavyena vimohitah sva-dharma-patham akuto-bhayam apahaya kupatha-pakhandam asamanjasam nija-manisaya mandah sampravartayisyate.

 

Sukadeva Gosvami continued speaking to Maharaja Pariksit: My dear King, the King of Konka, Venka and Kutaka whose name was Arhat, heard of the activities of Rsabhadeva and, imitating Rsabhadeva's principles, introduced a new system of religion. Taking advantage of Kali-yuga, the age of sinful activity, King Arhat, being bewildered, gave up the Vedic principles, which are free from risk, and concocted a new system of religion opposed to the Vedas. That was the beginning of the Jain dharma. Many other so-called religions followed this atheistic system.

 

8.11.5

aruruksanti mayabhir

utsisrpsanti ye divam

tan dasyun vidhunomy ajnan

purvasmac ca padad adhah

 

Those fools and rascals who want to ascend to the upper planetary system by mystic power or mechanical means, or who endeavor to cross even the upper planets and achieve the spiritual world or liberation, I cause to be sent to the lowest region of the universe.

 

 

Adhikarana 7: Pasupata Saivism Refuted.              

 

the doctrine of pasupata saivism upholds five categories said to have been taught by lord pasupati (siva) to break the bonds of the soul, who is called pasu (animal). the five categories are: cause, effect, mediation, discipline and cessation of misery. the cause is siva, the effect is material existence, the meditation is on the sound om, the discipline begins with bathing thrice daily and the cessation of misery is liberation. similar doctrines are held by those who worship ganesa and surya.

 

the pasupata doctrine is false because it contradicts the vedas. siva is not the cause.

(Vs. 2.2.37)

 

5.17.21

yam ahur asya sthiti janma-samyamam

tribhir vihinam yam anantam rsayah

na veda siddhartham iva kvacit sthitam

bhu-mandalam murdha-sahasra-dhamasu

 

Lord Siva continued: All the great sages accept the Lord as the source of creation, maintenance and destruction, although He actually has nothing to do with these activities. Therefore the Lord is called unlimited. Although the Lord in His incarnation as Sesa holds all the universes on His hoods, each universe feels no heavier than a mustard seed to Him. Therefore, what person desiring perfection will not worship the Lord?

 

8.12.4

sri-mahadeva uvaca

deva-deva jagad-vyapin

jagad-isa jagan-maya

sarvesam api bhavanam

tvam atma hetur isvarah

 

Lord Mahadeva said: O chief demigod among the demigods, O all-pervading Lord, master of the universe, by Your energy You are transformed into the creation. You are the root and efficient cause of everything. You are not material. Indeed, You are the Supersoul or supreme living force of everything. Therefore, You are Paramesvara, the supreme controller of all controllers.

 

1.2.26

mumuksavo ghora-rupan

hitva bhuta-patin atha

narayana-kalah santa

bhajanti hy anasuyavah

 

Those who are serious about liberation are certainly nonenvious, and they respect all. Yet they reject the horrible and ghastly forms of the demigods and worship only the all-blissful forms of Lord Visnu and His plenary portions.

 

pasupati saivites believe siva has no form. just as a potter without a body cannot shape clay, so a formless god cannot give form to the material world.

(Vs. 2.2.38)

 

1.2.30

sa evedam sasarjagre

bhagavan atma-mayaya

sad-asad-rupaya casau

gunamayaguno vibhuh

 

In the beginning of the material creation, that Absolute Personality of Godhead [Vasudeva], in His transcendental position, created the energies of cause and effect by His own internal energy.

 

2.5.18

sattvam rajas tama iti

nirgunasya gunas trayah

sthiti-sarga-nirodhesu

grhita mayaya vibhoh

 

The Supreme Lord is pure spiritual form, transcendental to all material qualities, yet for the sake of the creation of the material world and its maintenance and annihilation, He accepts through His external energy the material modes of nature called goodness, passion and ignorance.

 

10.10.29

krsna krsna maha-yogims

tvam adyah purusah parah

vyaktavyaktam idam visvam

rupam te brahmana viduh

 

O Lord Krsna, Lord Krsna, Your opulent mysticism is inconceivable. You are the supreme, original person, the cause of all causes, immediate and remote, and You are beyond this material creation. Learned brahmanas know [on the basis of the Vedic statement sarvam khalv idam brahma] that You are everything and that this cosmic manifestation, in its gross and subtle aspects, is Your form.

 

the form of the supreme lord rules over all other forms. a formless god would have no parts and parcels to rule.

(Vs. 2.2.39)

 


6.17.32

naham virinco na kumara-naradau

na brahma-putra munayah suresah

vidama yasyehitam amsakamsaka

na tat-svarupam prthag-isa-maninah

 

Neither I [Lord Siva], nor Brahma, nor the Asvini-kumaras, nor Narada or the other great sages who are Brahma's sons, nor even the demigods can understand the pastimes and personality of the Supreme Lord. Although we are part of the Supreme Lord, we consider ourselves independent, separate controllers, and thus we cannot understand His identity.

 

if the pasupati saivites argue that siva rules the total material energy in the same way the soul rules the material body, then siva is subject to karma, as is the embodied soul.

(Vs. 2.2.40)

 

10.88.3-5

sri-suka uvaca

sivah sakti-yutah sasvat

tri-lingo guna-samvrtah

vaikarikas taijasas ca

tamasas cety aham tridha

 

Sri Sukadeva said: Lord Siva is always united with his personal energy, the material nature. Manifesting himself in three features in response to the entreaties of nature's three modes, he thus embodies the threefold principle of material ego in goodness, passion and ignorance.

 

tato vikara abhavam

sodamsamisu kancana

upadhavam vibhutanam

sarvasam asnute gatim

 

The sixteen elements have evolved as transformations of that false ego. When a devotee of Lord Siva worships his manifestation in any one of these elements, the devotee obtains all sorts of corresponding enjoyable opulences.

 

harir hi nirgunah saksat

purusah prakrteh parah

sa sarva-drg upadrasta

tam bhajam nirguno bhavet

 

Lord Hari, however, has no connection with the material modes. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the all-seeing eternal witness, who is transcendental to material nature. One who worships Him becomes similarly free from the material modes.

 

4.24.43

sakti-traya-sametaya

midhuse 'hankrtatmane

ceta-akuti-rupaya

namo vaco vibhutaye

 

My dear Lord, You are the supreme controller of the worker, sense activities and results of sense activities [karma]. Therefore You are the controller of the body, mind and senses. You are also the supreme controller of egotism, known as Rudra. You are the source of knowledge and the activities of the Vedic injunctions.

 


if god is under the law of karma, he could neither be infinite nor all-knowing.

(Vs. 2.2.41)

 

2.6.40

visuddham kevalam jnanam

pratyak samyag avasthitam

satyam purnam anady-antam

nirgunam nityam advayam

 

The Personality of Godhead is pure, being free from all contaminations of material tinges. He is the Absolute Truth and the embodiment of full and perfect knowledge. He is all-pervading, without beginning or end, and without rival.

 

3.32.26

jnana-matram param brahma

paramatmesvarah puman

drsy-adibhih prthag bhavair

bhagavan eka iyate

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead alone is complete transcendental knowledge, but according to the different processes of understanding He appears differently, either as impersonal Brahman, as Paramatma, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead or as the purusa-avatara.

 

10.2.39

na te 'bhavasyesa bhavasya karanam

vina vinodam bata tarkayamahe

bhavo nirodhah sthitir apy avidyaya

krta yatas tvayy abhayasrayatmani

 

O Supreme Lord, You are not an ordinary living entity appearing in this material world as a result of fruitive activities. Therefore Your appearance or birth in this world has no other cause than Your pleasure potency. Similarly, the living entities, who are part of You, have no cause for miseries like birth, death and old age, except when these living entities are conducted by Your external energy.

 

4.3.23

sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam

yad iyate tatra puman apavrtah

sattve ca tasmin bhagavan vasudevo

hy adhoksajo me namasa vidhiyate

 

I am always engaged in offering obeisances to Lord Vasudeva in pure Krna consciousness. Krsna consciousness is always pure consciousness, in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Vasudeva, is revealed without any covering.

 

 

Adhikarana 8: The Sakta Doctrine Refuted.             

 

the saktas worship goddess durga-devi as supreme. they believe she is all-knowing, self-satisfied and the original source of creation. but the saktas are wrong, for the vedas say differently. durga is the personified material energy. as has been shown previously, material nature cannot create of its own accord.

(2.2.42)

 


2.6.39

sa esa adyah purusah

kalpe kalpe srjaty ajah

atmatmany atmanatmanam

sa samyacchati pati ca

 

That supreme original Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna, expanding His plenary portion as Maha-Visnu, the first incarnation, creates this manifested cosmos, but He is unborn. The creation, however, takes place in Him, and the material substance and manifestations are all Himself. He maintains them for some time and absorbs them into Himself again.

 

the saktas may reply that durga-devi creates with the help of siva, and that he is self-satisfied and has a form that is eternal and full of knowledge. by admitting that durga is the sakti of her personal lord, they accept the vedanta standpoint. siva is indeed the husband of durga, and both are servants of the supreme  personality of godhead krsna.

(Vs. 2.2.43)

 

10.87.28

tvam akaranah sva-rad akhila-karaka-sakti-dharas

tava balim udvahanti samadanty ajayanimisah

varsa-bhujo 'khila-ksiti-pater visva-srjo

vidhadhati yatra ye tv adhikrta bhavatas cakitah

 

Though You have no material senses, You are the self-effulgent sustainer of everyone's sensory powers. The demigods and material nature herself offer You tribute, while also enjoying the tribute offered them by their worshipers, just as subordinate rulers of various districts in a kingdom offer tribute to their lord, the ultimate proprietor of the land, while also enjoying the tribute paid them by their own subjects. In this way the universal creators faithfully execute their assigned services out of fear of You.

 

but the sakta claim that durga is supreme contradicts sastra and is illogical.

(Vs. 2.2.44)

 

2.5.13

vilajjamanaya yasya

sthatum iksa-pathe 'muya

vimohita vikatthante

mamaham iti durdhiyah

 

The illusory energy of the Lord cannot take precedence, being ashamed of her position, but those who are bewildered by her always talk nonsense, being absorbed in thoughts of "It is I" and "It is mine."

 

 

z


CHAPTER SEVEN             

[Vedanta-sutra Reference: Second Adhyaya, Pada Three]

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter Seven •

 

1. Ether (sky) is created.

2. Air is created.

3. The Eternal (Sat) is not created.

4-6. Fire originates from air; water originates from fire; earth originates from water, and the word 'anna' in the Chandogya Upanisad means 'earth.'

7. The elements originate from the Brahman.

8. Brahman is the cause of the transformations of matter.

9. Brahman is the cause of mind and intelligence.

10. All words are primarily names of Brahman; secondarily they indicate other things.

11. The individual souls are not created, but are beginningless and eternal.

12. The jivas are both knowledge and knowers.

13. The individual souls are atomic.

14. The individual spirit soul performs actions.

15. Activity is the nature of the spirit soul.

16. The activities of the spirit soul are always dependent upon Brahman.

17. The individual soul is part and parcel of Brahman.

18. The avataras of Brahman are not like the jivas, for the avataras are Brahman.

19. The individual spirit souls are not identically the same.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: Ether (Sky) Is Created.

 

chandogya upanisad, describing the appearance of the material elements, does not mention the creation of sky or ether. an opponent of vedanta may therefore argue that ether is ever-existing.

(Vs. 2.3.1)

 

11.3.3

sri-antariksa uvaca

ebhir bhutani bhutatma

maha-bhutair maha-bhuja

sasarjoccavacany adyah

sva-matratma-prasiddhaye

 

Sri Antariksa said: O mighty-armed King, by activating the material elements, the primeval Soul of all creatures has sent forth all living beings in higher and lower species so that these conditioned souls can cultivate either sense gratification or ultimate liberation, according to their desire.

 

the creation of ether is described in the taittiriya upanisad.

(Vs. 2.3.2)

3.26.32, 33

tamasac ca vikurvanad

bhagavad-virya-coditat

sabda-matram abhut tasman

nabhah srotram tu sabdagam

 

When egoism in ignorance is agitated by the sex energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the subtle element sound is manifested, and from sound come the ethereal sky and the sense of hearing.

 

arthasrayatvam sabdasya

drastur lingatvam eva ca

tan-matratvam ca nabhaso

laksanam kavayo viduh

 

Persons who are learned and who have true knowledge define sound as that which conveys the idea of an object, indicates the presence of a speaker screened from our view and constitutes the subtle form of ether.

 

'it is impossible for ether to have been created,' argues the opponent. 'taittiriya upanisad must be speaking figuratively.'

(Vs. 2.3.3.)

 

4.24.40

artha-lingaya nabhase

namo 'ntar-bahir-atmane

namah punyaya lokaya

amusmai bhuri-varcase

 

My dear Lord, by expanding Your transcendental vibrations, You reveal the actual meaning of everything. You are the all-pervading sky within and without, and You are the ultimate goal of pious activities executed both within this material world and beyond it. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances again and again unto You.

 

the opponent continues: 'like the word brahman, the words ether and sky may be used figuratively in the scriptures.'

(Vs. 2.3.4)

4.24.60

yatredam vyajyate visvam

visvasminn avabhati yat

tat tvam brahma param jyotir

akasam iva vistrtam

 

My dear Lord, the impersonal Brahman spreads everywhere, like the sunshine or the sky. And that impersonal Brahman, which spreads throughout the universe and in which the entire universe is manifested, is You.

 

reply: that ether is created is directly stated in the scriptures.

(Vs. 2.3.5)

 

4.24.63

tvam eka adyah purusah supta-saktis

taya rajah-sattva-tamo vibhidyate

mahan aham kham marud agni-var-dharah

surarsayo bhuta-gana idam yatah

 

My dear Lord, You are the only Supreme Person, the cause of all causes. Before the creation of this material world, Your material energy remains in a dormant condition. When Your material energy is agitated, the three qualities—namely goodness, passion and ignorance—act, and as a result the total material energy—egotism, ether, air, fire, water, earth and all the various demigods and saintly persons—becomes manifest. Thus the material world is created.

 


it may seem impossible for ether to have been created, but the potency of he who created the cosmic manifestation is unlimited.

(Vs. 2.3.6)

 

4.4.48

mayy ananta-gune 'nante

gunato guna-vigrahah

yadasit tata evadyah

svayambhuh samabhud ajah

 

I am the reservoir of unlimited potency, and therefore I am known as unlimited or all-pervading. From My material energy the cosmic manifestation appeared within Me, and in this universal manifestation appeared the chief being, Lord Brahma, who is your source and is not born of a material mother.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: Air Is Created.                   

 

the chandogya upanisad does not mention air in its list of created elements; but by the testimony of other vedic sources, air, like ether, is understood to have been created.

(Vs. 2.3.7)

 

3.26.35

nabhasah sabda-tanmatrat

kala-gatya vikurvatah

sparso 'bhavat tato vayus

tvak sparsasya ca sangrahah

 

From ethereal existence, which evolves from sound, the next transformation takes place under the impulse of time, and thus the subtle element touch and thence the air and sense of touch become prominent.

 

 

Adhikarana 3: The Eternal (Sat) Is Not Created.          

 

sat is 'asambhava' (without beginning), for it is impossible for the eternal to be created.

(Vs. 2.3.8)

 

2.9.33

aham evasam evagre

nanyad yat sad-asat param

pascad aham yad etac ca

yo 'vasisyeta so 'smy aham

 

Brahma, it is I, the Personality of Godhead, who was existing before the creation, when there was nothing but Myself. Nor was there the material nature, the cause of this creation. That which you see now is also I, the Personality of Godhead, and after annihilation what remains will also be I, the Personality of Godhead.

 

 


Adhikaranas 4-6:

Fire Originates From Air; Water Originates From Fire;

Earth Originates From Water, And The Word 'Anna'

In The Chandogya Upanisad Means 'Earth.'                 

 

scripture testifies that fire comes from air, water from fire and earth from water. earth, possessing the qualities of sound, touch, form, taste and smell, is known as 'anna' (food).

(V.s. 2.3.9-11)

 

2.5.26-29

nabhaso 'tha vikurvanad

abhut sparsa-guno 'nilah

paranvayac chabdavams ca

prana ojah saho balam

 

vayor api vikurvanat

kala-karma-sva bhavatah

udapadyata tejo vai

rupavat sparsa-sa bdavat

 

tejasas tu vikurvanad

asid ambho rasatmakam

rupavat sparsavac cambho

ghosavac ca paranvayat

 

visesas tu vikurvanad

ambhaso gandhavan abhut

paranvayad rasa-sparsa-

sabda-rupa-guna nvitah

 

Because the sky is transformed, the air is generated with the quality of touch, and by previous succession the air is also full of sound and the basic principles of duration of life: sense perception, mental power and bodily strength. When the air is transformed in course of time and nature's course, fire is generated, taking shape with the sense of touch and sound. Since fire is also transformed, there is a manifestation of water, full of juice and taste. As previously, it also has form and touch and is also full of sound. And water, being transformed from all variegatedness on earth, appears odorous and, as previously, becomes qualitatively full of juice, touch, sound and form respectively.

 

4.18.29, 29

evam prthv-adayah prthvim

annadah svannam atmanah

doha-vatsadi-bhedena

ksira-bhedam kurudvaha

 

My dear Vidura, chief of the Kurus, in this way King Prthu and all the others who subsist on food created different types of calves and milked out their respective eatables. Thus they received their various foodstuffs, which were symbolized as milk.

 

tato mahipatih pritah

sarva-kama-dugham prthuh

duhitrtve cakaremam

premna duhitr-vatsalah

 

Thereafter King Prthu was very satisfied with the planet earth, for she sufficiently supplied all food to various living entities. Thus he developed an affection for the planet earth, just as if she were his own daughter.

 

 

Adhikarana 7: The Elements Originate From The Brahman.

 

the elements originate from the lord and indeed comprise his universal form.

(Vs. 2.3.12)

 

3.26.3, 4

anadir atma puruso

nirgunah prakrteh parah

pratyag-dhama svayam-jyotir

visvam yena samanvitam

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supreme Soul, and He has no beginning. He is transcendental to the material modes of nature and beyond the existence of this material world. He is perceivable everywhere because He is self-effulgent, and by His self-effulgent luster the entire creation is maintained.

 

sa esa prakrtim suksmam

daivim gunamayim vibhuh

yadrcchayaivopagatam

abhyapadyata lilaya

 

As His pastime, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, the greatest of the great, accepted the subtle material energy, which is invested with three material modes of nature and which is related with Visnu.

 

 

Adhikarana 8:

Brahman Is The Cause Of The Transformations Of Matter.

 

the order of transformation of the material elements (from ether to air, air to fire, etc.) is of secondary importance; of primary importance is that the supreme lord is the chief cause of these transformations.

(Vs. 2.3.13)

 

10.48.18, 19

yuvam pradhana-purusau

jagad-dhetu-jagan-mayau

bhavadbhyam na vina kincit

param asti na capriyam

 

You both are the original Supreme Person, the cause of the universe and its very substance. Not the slightest subtle cause or manifest product of creation exists apart from You.

 

atma-srstam idam visvam

anvavisya sva-saktibhih

iyate bahudha brahman

sruta-pratyaksa-gocaram

 

O Supreme Absolute Truth, with Your personal energies You create this universe and then enter into it. Thus one can perceive You in many different forms by hearing from authorities and by direct experience.

 


Adhikarana 9:

Brahman Is The Cause Of Mind And Intelligence.    

 

objection: mundaka upanisad 2.1.3 gives the order of transformation of the material elements. accordingly, prana is the first element; from prana comes mind, from mind comes the senses, from them akasa, from akasa air and so on. therefore your claim that the order is not important, and that we may simply accept that these elements spring directly from the supreme lord, is wrong.

 

reply: mundaka upanisad repeatedly employs the word 'etasmat' (from him) to establish that the origin of all these elements is the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.3.14)

 

3.5.38

bhutanam nabha-adinam

yad yad bhavyavaravaram

tesam paranusamsargad

yatha sankhyam gunan viduh

 

O gentle one, of all the physical elements, beginning from the sky down to the earth, all the inferior and superior qualities are due only to the final touch of the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Adhikarana 10:

All Words Are Primarily Names Of Brahman;

Secondarily They Indicate Other Things.                    

 

objection: granting that the supreme lord's final touch brings forth the qualities of the elements in the chain of material manifestation, still these elements are different from him. if it were not so, then all words denoting moveable and immovable objects would be understood to be just names of the one supreme lord. but everyone primarily uses words to denote the different material objects of this world; only when words are used in a secondary, abstract way may they indicate the supreme lord. the correct understanding, then, is that primarily the elements manifest one from another, and only secondarily do they manifest from the supreme lord.

 

reply: all words indeed primarily indicate the supreme lord. but this is known only to one who has realized the full truth of vedanta.

(Vs. 2.3.15)

 

10.85.56

caracaram idam visvam

bhava ye casya hetavah

mad-rupaniti cetasy a-

dhatte vipro mad-iksaya

 

Because he has realized Me, a brahmana is firmly fixed in the knowledge that everything moving and nonmoving in the universe, and also the primary elements of its creation, are all manifest forms expanded from Me.

 


Adhikarana 11:

The Individual Souls Are Not Created,

But Are Beginningless And Eternal.                     

 

objection: if the supreme lord is the origin of both moving as well as nonmoving things, then the individual souls that animate the moving things must have been created.

 

reply: the vedic scriptures declare the individual soul to be eternal.

(Vs. 2.3.16)

 

6.16.9

esa nityo 'vyayah suksma

esa sarvasrayah svadrk

atmamaya-gunair visvam

atmanam srjate prabhuh

 

The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.

 

 

Adhikarana 12:

The Jivas Are Both Knowledge And Knowers.      

 

objection: the jiva may be eternal, but he is sometimes conscious and sometimes unconscious, as when in deep sleep. this means the soul has consciousness when the element buddhi (intelligence) is present, but the soul is not himself the knower.

 

reply: the jiva is always conscious; intelligence is the symptom of consciousness. therefore the jiva is both knowledge and the knower.

(Vs. 2.3.17)

 

3.7.5

desatah kalato yo 'sav

avasthatah svato 'nyatah

aviluptavabodhatma

sa yujyetajaya katham

 

The pure soul is pure consciousness and is never out of consciousness, either due to circumstances, time, situations, dreams or other causes. How then does he become engaged in nescience?

 

3.27.18

yatha gandhasya bhumes ca

na bhavo vyatirekatah

apam rasasya ca yatha

tatha buddheh parasya ca

 

As there is no separate existence of the earth and its aroma or of water and its taste, there cannot be any separate existence of intelligence and consciousness.

 


Adhikarana 13: The Individual Souls Are Atomic.          

 

though brhad-aranyaka upanisad 4.4.14 describes the individual soul as 'mahan' (great), it is incorrect to think that this means the jiva is all-pervading. the same upanisad describes how the jiva passes out of the body at death; and how the jiva may travel to lower worlds after death; and how the jiva at last returns to this world, the karma-loka. it must be concluded that the jiva is atomic.

(Vs. 2.3.18)

 

6.16.9

esa nityo 'vyayah suksma

esa sarvasrayah svadrk

atmamaya-gunair visvam

atmanam srjate prabhuh

 

The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.

 

6.16.6

yatha vastuni panyani

hemadini tatas tatah

paryatanti naresv evam

jivo yonisu kartrsu

 

Just as gold and other commodities are continually transferred from one place to another in due course of purchase and sale, so the living entity, as a result of his fruitive activities, wanders throughout the entire universe, being injected into various bodies in different species of life by one kind of father after another.

 

3.30.34

adhastan nara-lokasya

yavatir yatanadayah

kramasah samanukramya

punar atravrajec chucih

 

Having gone through all the miserable, hellish conditions and having passed in a regular order through the lowest forms of animal life prior to human birth, and having thus been purged of his sins, one is reborn again as a human being on this earth.

 

objection: the jiva's 'passing out' of the body is only figurative, for in reality he is all-pervading. by falsely identifying with a material body, the jiva only imagines that he 'passes out' of the body at the time of death.

 

reply: the jiva's 'traveling' and 'returning' cannot be figuratively explained. therefore his 'passing' must be accepted literally.

(Vs. 2.3.19)

 

11.22.37, 39

sri-bhagavan uvaca

manah karma-mayam nrnam

indriyaih pancabhir yutam

lokal lokam prayaty anya

atma tad anuvartate

 

Lord Krsna said: The material mind of men is shaped by the reactions of fruitive work. Along with the five senses, it travels from one material body to another. The spirit soul, although different from this mind, follows it.

 

visayabhinivesena

natmanam yat smaret punah

jantor vai kasyacid dhetor

mrtyur atyanta-vismrtih

 

When the living entity passes from the present body to the next body, which is created by his own karma, he becomes absorbed in the pleasurable and painful sensations of the new body and completely forgets the experience of the previous body. This total forgetfulness of one's previous material identity, which comes about for one reason or another, is called death.

 

objection: but after all, there remains the testimony of the upanisads that the soul is very great. the jiva must therefore be all-pervading.

 

reply: these statements refer to the supersoul.

(Vs. 2.3.30)

 

10.87.30

amparimita dhruvas tanu-bhrto yadi sarva-gatas

tarhi na sasyateti niyamo dhruva netaratha

ajani ca yan-mayam tad avimucya niyantr bhavet

samam anujanatam yad amatam mata-dustataya

 

If the countless living entities were all-pervading and possessed forms that never changed, You could not possibly be their absolute ruler, O immutable one. But since they are Your localized expansions and their forms are subject to change, You do control them. Indeed, that which supplies the ingredients for the generation of something is necessarily its controller because a product never exists apart from its ingredient cause. It is simply illusion for someone to think that he knows the Supreme Lord, who is equally present in each of His expansion, since whatever knowledge one gains by material means must be imperfect.

 

9.19.29

namas tubhyam bhagavate

vasudevaya vedhase

sarva-bhutadhivasaya

santaya brhate namah

 

O Lord Vasudeva, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are the creator of the entire cosmic manifestation. You live as the Supersoul in everyone's heart and are smaller than the smallest, yet You are greater than the greatest and are all-pervading. You appear completely silent, having nothing to do, but this is due to Your all-pervading nature and Your fullness in all opulences. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

 

the individual spirit soul is indeed described in the vedic scriptures as an atomic particle of brahman.

(Vs. 2.3.21)

 

3.25.17

tada purusa atmanam

kevalam prakrteh param

nirantaram svayam-jyotir

animanam akhanditam

 

At that time the soul can see himself to be transcendental to material existence and always self-effulgent, never fragmented, although very minute in size.

 

6.16.24

dehendriya-prana-mano-dhiyo 'mi

yad-amsa-viddhah pracaranti karmasu

naivanyada lauham ivaprataptam

sthanesu tad drastrapadesam eti

 

As iron has the power to burn when made red-hot in the association of fire, so the body, senses, living force, mind and intelligence, although merely lumps of matter, can function in their activities when infused with a particle of consciousness by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As iron cannot burn unless heated by fire, the bodily senses cannot act unless favored by the Supreme Brahman.

 

though the individual soul is atomic, his consciousness pervades the whole body, as much as a drop of sandalwood pleases the body as a whole. therefore the individual soul is also described as 'all-pervading.'

(Vs. 2.3.22)

 

4.20.7

ekah suddhah svayam-jyotir

nirguno 'sau gunasrayah

sarva-go 'navrtah saksi

niratmatmatmanah parah

 

The individual soul is one, pure, nonmaterial and self-effulgent. He is the reservoir of all good qualities, and He is all-pervading. He is without material covering, and He is the witness of all activities. He is completely distinguished from other living entities, and He is transcendental to all embodied souls.

 

objection: unlike a drop of sandalwood, the soul has no specific location anywhere in the body; therefore he cannot be atomic.

 

reply: prasna upanisad 3.6 declares, hrdi hy esa atma: 'the soul resides in the heart.'

(Vs. 2.3.23)

 

4.22.26

yada ratir brahmani naisthiki puman

acaryavan jnana-viraga-ramhasa

dahaty aviryam hrdayam jiva-kosam

pancatmakam yonim ivotthito 'gnih

 

Upon becoming fixed in his attachment to the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the grace of the spiritual master and by awakening knowledge and detachment, the living entity, situated within the heart of the body and covered by the five elements, burns up his material surroundings exactly as fire, arising from wood, burns the wood itself.

 

athough the soul is atomic, it is luminous with consciousness. just as the sun pervades the whole universe by its light, so the soul pervades the whole body by consciousness.

(Vs. 2.3.24)

 


12.5.8

na tatratma svayam-jyotir

yo vyaktavyaktayoh parah

akasa iva cadharo

dhruvo 'nantopamas tatah

 

The soul within the body is self-luminous and is separate from the visible gross body and invisible subtle body. It remains as the fixed basis of changing bodily existence, just as the ethereal sky is the unchanging background of material transformation. Therefore the soul is endless and without material comparison.

 

as fragrance, emanating far from its source, pervades that which is non-fragrant, so also consciousness, emanating far from the soul, pervades that which is unconscious.

(Vs. 2.3.25)

 

11.3.38

natma jajana na marisyati naidhate 'sau

na ksiyate savana-vid vyabhicarinam hi

sarvatra sasvad anapayy upalabdhi-matram

prano yathendriya-balena vikalpitam sat

 

Brahman, the eternal soul, was never born and will never die, nor does it grow or decay. That spiritual soul is actually the knower of the youth, middle age and death of the material body. Thus the soul can be understood to be pure consciousness, existing everywhere at all times and never being destroyed. Just as the life air within the body, although one, becomes manifest as many in contact with the various material senses, the one soul appears to assume various material designations in contact with the material body.

 

the soul is eternal, but his eternality is covered by the temporary conditions of matter. when this covering is removed, the soul's eternal glory is revealed.

(Vs. 2.3.26)

 

6.16.57

yad etad vismrtam pumso

mad-bhavam bhinnam atmanah

tatah samsara etasya

dehad deho mrter mrtih

 

When a living entity, thinking himself different from Me, forgets his spiritual identity of qualitative oneness with Me in eternity, knowledge and bliss, his material, conditional life begins. In other words, instead of identifying his interest with Mine, he becomes interested in his bodily expansions like his wife, children and material possessions. In this way, by the influence of his actions, one body comes from another, and after one death, another death takes place.

 

7.7.21

svarnam yatha gravasu hema-karah

ksetresu yogais tad-abhijna apnuyat

ksetresu dehesu tathatma-yogair

adhyatma-vid brahma-gatim labheta

 

An expert geologist can understand where there is gold and by various processes can extract it from the gold ore. Similarly, a spiritually advanced person can understand how the spiritual particle exists within the body, and thus by cultivating spiritual knowledge he can attain perfection in spiritual life. However, as one who is not expert cannot understand where there is gold, a foolish person who has not cultivated spiritual knowledge cannot understand how the spirit exists within the body.

 

the soul's essential nature is consciousness. therefore it is equally correct to describe the soul as conscious and as consciousness. there is no duality between the two.

(Vs. 2.3.27)

 

11.28.36

etavan atma-sammoho

yad vikalpas tu kevale

atman rte svam atmanam

avalambo na yasya hi

 

Whatever apparent duality is perceived in the self is simply the confusion of the mind. Indeed, such supposed duality has no basis to rest upon apart from one's own soul.

 

there is no duality between the soul and his consciousness because both are eternal.

(Vs. 2.3.28)

 

3.7.5

desatah kalato yo 'sav

avasthatah svato 'nyatah

aviluptavabodhatma

sa yujyetajaya katham

 

The pure soul is pure consciousness and is never out of consciousness, either due to circumstances, time, situations, dreams or other causes. How then does he become engaged in nescience?

 

when (as in the state of deep sleep) there is no object for consciousness to perceive, then consciousness is dormant, like the virility of a young boy.

(Vs. 2.3.28)

 

3.27.15

manyamanas tadatmanam

anasto nastavan mrsa

naste 'hankarane drasta

nasta-vitta ivaturah

 

The living entity can vividly feel his existence as the seer, but because of the disappearance of the ego during the state of deep sleep, he falsely takes himself to be lost, like a man who has lost his fortune and feels distressed, thinking himself to be lost.

 

5.11.12

ksetrajna eta manaso vibhutir

jivasya maya-racitasya nityah

avirhitah kvapi tirohitas ca

suddho vicaste hy avisuddha-kartuh

 

The individual soul bereft of Krsna consciousness has many ideas and activities created in the mind by the external energy. They have been existing from time immemorial. Sometimes they are manifest in the wakening state and in the dream state, but during deep sleep [unconsciousness] or trance, they disappear. A person who is liberated in this life [jivan-mukta] can see all these things vividly.

 


as stated previously (vs. 2.3.22), the atomic soul is conscious and his symptom is all-pervasive consciousness. because of the atomic size of the soul, consciousness is manifest or unmanifest according to external circumstances. if the soul were only consciousness (i.e. if he were pervasive, not atomic), then he would have to be eternally conscious or eternally unconscious, or some contradictory  combination of the two.

(Vs. 2.3.30)

 

6.16.9

esa nityo 'vyayah suksma

esa sarvasrayah svadrk

atmamaya-gunair visvam

atmanam srjate prabhuh

 

The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.

 

11.13.34

ikseta vibhramam idam manaso vilasam

drstam vinastam ati-lolam alata-cakram

vijnanam ekam urudheva vibhati maya

svapnas tridha guna-visarga-krto vikalpa

 

One should see that the material world is a distinct illusion appearing in the mind, because material objects have an extremely flickering existence and are here today and gone tomorrow. They can be compared to the streaking red line created by whirling a fiery stick. The spirit soul by nature exists in the single state of pure consciousness. However, in this world he appears in many different forms and stages of existence. The modes of nature divide the soul's consciousness into normal wakefulness, dreaming and dreamless sleep. All such varieties of perception, however, are actually maya and exist only like a dream.

 

 

Adhikarana 14: The Individual Spirit Soul Performs Actions.    

 

some scriptural texts declare the three modes of material nature to be the cause of action; the soul is thus said to be the nondoer. other texts declare the soul to be the performer of actions. the resolution is that the soul indeed performs actions.

(Vs. 2.3.31)

 

4.29.78

yadaksais caritan dhyayan

karmany acinute 'sakrt

sati karmany avidyayam

bandhah karmany anatmanah

 

As long as we desire to enjoy sense gratification, we create material activities. When the living entity acts in the material field, he enjoys the senses, and while enjoying the senses, he creates another series of material activities. In this way the living entity becomes entrapped as a conditioned soul.

 

that the spirit soul is the doer can be understood by the pure activities of the liberated souls in the spiritual world. in the material world, the three modes of material nature obscure the activities of the conditioned souls. material activities thus result in distress.

(Vs. 2.3.32)

6.1.44

sambhavanti hi bhadrani

viparitani canaghah

karinam guna-sango 'sti

dehavan na hy akamaa-krt

 

O inhabitants of Vaikuntha, you are sinless, but those within this material world are all karmis, whether acting piously or impiously. Both kinds of action are possible for them because they are contaminated by the three modes of nature and must act accordingly. One who has accepted a material body cannot be inactive, and sinful action is inevitable for one acting under the modes of material nature. Therefore all the living entities within this material world are punishable.

 

the physical senses act because of the movements of the life air; the life air moves under the direction of the supersoul in conjunction with the desires of the individual soul. thus the soul is said to be the performer of material activities.

(Vs. 2.3.33)

 

7.2.45

na srota nanuvaktayam

mukhyo 'py atra mahan asuh

yas tv ihendriyavan atma

sa canyah prana-dehayoh

 

In the body the most important substance is the life air, but that also is neither the listener nor the speaker. Beyond even the life air, the soul also can do nothing, for the Supersoul is actually the director, in cooperation with the individual soul. The Supersoul conducting the activities of the body is different from the body and living force.

 

the vedic scriptures ascribe action to consciousness, not to material elements.

objection: the conditioned soul cannot be the actor because he acts against his own self-interest.

reply: the conditioned soul is subject to his past karma; therefore he acts against his own self-interest.

(Vs. 2.3.24)

 

6.16.24

dehendriya-prana-mano-dhiyo 'mi

yad-amsa-viddhah pracaranti karmasu

naivanyada lauham ivaprataptam

sthanesu tad drastrapadesam eti

 

As iron has the power to burn when made red-hot in the association of fire, so the body, senses, living force, mind and intelligence, although merely lumps of matter, can function in their activities when infused with a particle of consciousness by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As iron cannot burn unless heated by fire, the bodily senses cannot act unless favored by the Supreme Brahman.

 

5.5.5.

parabhavas tavad abodha jato

yavan na jijnasata atma-tattvam

yavat kriyas tavad idam mano vai

karmatmakam yena sarira-bandhah

 


As long as one does not inquire about the spiritual values of life, one is defeated and subjected to miseries arising from ignorance. Be it sinful or pious, karma has its resultant actions. If a person is engaged in any kind of karma, his mind is called karmatmaka, colored with fruitive activity. As long as the mind is impure, consciousness is unclear, and as long as one is absorbed in fruitive activity, he has to accept a material body.

 

the theory of matter as the active principle is false, as has been demonstrated already regarding the atheistic sankhya philosophy.

(Vs. 2.3.35)

 

6.4.32

astiti nastiti ca vastu-nisthayor

eka-sthayor bhinna-viruddha-dharmanoh

aveksitam kincana yoga-sankhyayoh

samam param hy anukulam brhat tat

 

There are two parties—namely, the theists and the atheists. The theist, who accepts the Supersoul, finds the spiritual cause through mystic yoga. The Sankhyite, however, who merely analyzes the material elements, comes to a conclusion of impersonalism and does not accept a supreme cause—whether Bhagavan, Paramatma or even Brahman. Instead, he is preoccupied with the superfluous, external activities of material nature. Ultimately, however, both parties demonstrate the Absolute Truth because although they offer opposing statements, their object is the same ultimate cause. They are both approaching the same Supreme Brahman, to whom I offer my respectful obeisances.

 

if material nature were the cause of the living entity's activities, then material nature would be the enjoyer or sufferer of karma. but the living entity enjoys and suffers karma. hence, the living entity is responsible for his actions under material nature.

(Vs. 2.3.36)

 

11.11.5, 6

atha baddhasya muktasya

vailaksanyam vadami te

viruddha-dharminos tata

sthitayor eka-dharmini

 

Thus, my dear Uddhava, in the same material body we find opposing characteristics, such as great happiness and misery. That is because both the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternally liberated, as well as the conditioned soul are within the body. I shall now speak to you about their different characteristics.

 

suparnav etau sadrsau sakhayay

yadrcchayaitau krta-nidau ca vrkse

ekas tayoh khadati pippalannam

anyo niranno 'pi balena bhuyan

 

By chance, two birds have made a nest together in the same tree. The two birds are friends and are of a similar nature. One of them, however, is eating the fruits of the tree, whereas the other, who does not eat the fruits, is in a superior position due to His potency.

 

the essential principle of action is consciousness, not matter. if it were not so, how could the spirit soul be liberated from matter by devotional service?

(Vs. 2.3.37)

 


3.25.15

cetah khalv asya bandhaya

muktaye catmano matam

gunesu saktam bandhaya

ratam va pumsi muktaye

 

The stage in which the consciousness of the living entity is attracted by the three modes of material nature is called conditional life. But when that same consciousness is attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one is situated in the consciousness of liberation.

 

5.5.2

mahat-sevam dvaram ahur vimuktes

tamo-dvaram yositam sangi-sangam

mahantas te sama-cittah prasanta

vimanyavah suhrdah sadhavo ye

 

One can attain the path of liberation from material bondage only by rendering service to highly advanced spiritual personalities. These personalities are impersonalists and devotees. Whether one wants to merge into the Lord's existence or wants to associate with the Personality of Godhead, one should render service to the mahatmas. For those who are not interested in such activities, who associate with people fond of women and sex, the path to hell is wide open. The mahatmas are equipoised. They do not see any difference between one living entity and another. They are very peaceful and are fully engaged in devotional service. They are devoid of anger, and they work for the benefit of everyone. They do not behave in any abominable way. Such people are known as mahatmas.

 

 

Adhikarana 15: Activity Is The Nature Of The Spirit Soul.     

 

as a carpenter acts using both tools and his own hands, so also does the soul act, indirectly using the physical body and directly using the pranas (life airs).

(Vs. 2.3.28)

 

7.2.45

na srota nanuvaktayam

mukhyo 'py atra mahan asuh

yas tv ihendriyavan atma

sa canyah prana-dehayoh

 

In the body the most important substance is the life air, but that also is neither the listener nor the speaker. Beyond even the life air, the soul also can do nothing, for the Supersoul is actually the director, in cooperation with the individual soul. The Supersoul conducting the activities of the body is different from the body and living force.

 

 

Adhikarana 16:

The Activities Of The Spirit Soul Are Always Dependent Upon Brahman.                           

 

the vedic scriptures declare that the ultimate cause of the activities of the living entity is the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.3.39)

 

6.12.10

ojah saho balam pranam

amrtam mrtyum eva ca

tam ajnaya jano hetum

atmanam manyate jadam

 

Our sensory prowess, mental power, bodily strength, living force, immortality and mortality are all subject to the superintendence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Not knowing this, foolish people think the dull material body to be the cau se of their activities.

 

though the supreme lord is the ultimate cause of action, that does not render meaningless the rules of conduct given to human beings by the scriptures. the living entity is responsible for the sowing of sinful and pious activities, which are like seeds that grow bitter and sweet fruits he must later consume.

(Vs. 2.3.40)

 

11.12.21-23

yasminn idam protam asesam otam

pato yatha tantu-vitana-samsthah

ya esa samsara-taruh puranah

karmatmakah puspa-phale prasute

 

Just as woven cloth rests on the expansion of lengthwise and crosswise threads, similarly the entire universe is expanded on the lengthwise and crosswise potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and is situated within Him. The conditioned soul has been accepting material bodies since time immemorial, and these bodies are like great trees sustaining one's material existence. Just as a tree first blossoms and then produces fruit, similarly the tree of material existence, one's material body, produces the various results of material existence.

 

dve asya bije sata-mulas tri-nalah

panca-skandhah panca-rasa-prasutih

dasaika-sakho dvi-suparna-nidas

tri-valkalo dvi-phalo 'rkam pravistah

 

adanti caikam phalam asya grdhra

grame-cara ekam aranya-vasah

hamsa ya ekam bahu-rupam ijyair

maya-mayam veda sa veda vedam

 

This tree of material existence has two seeds, hundreds of roots, three lower trunks and five uper trunks. It produces five flavors and has eleven branches and a nest made by two birds. The tree is covered by three types of bark, gives two fruits and extends up to the sun. Those lusty after material enjoyment and dedicated to family life enjoy one of the tree's fruits, and swanlike men in the renounced order of life enjoy the other fruit. One who with the help of the bona fide spiritual masters can understand this tree to be a manifestation of the potency of the one Supreme Truth appearing in many forms actually knows the meaning of the Vedic literature.

 

 

Adhikarana 17: The Individual Soul Is Part And Parcel Of Brahman. 

 

scripture testifies the individual soul to be part and parcel of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.3.41)

 

11.11.4

ekasyaiva mamamsasya

jivasyaiva maha-mate

bandho 'syavidyayanadir

vidyaya ca tathearah

 

O most intelligent Uddhava, the living entity, called jiva, is part and parcel of Me, but due to ignorance he has been suffering in material bondage since time immemorial. By knowledge, however, he can be liberated.

the vedic mantras so testify.

(Vs. 2.3.42)

 

10.87.20

sva-krta-puresv amisv abahir-antara-samvaranam

tava purusam vadanty akhila-sakti-dhrto 'msa-krtam

iti nr-gatim vivicya kavayo nigamavapanam

bhavata upasate 'nghrim abhavam bhuvi visvasitah

 

The individual living entity, while inhabiting the material bodies he has created for himself by his karma, actually remains uncovered by either gross or subtle matter. This is so because, as the Vedas describe, he is part and parcel of You, the possessor of all potencies. Having determined this to be the status of the living entity, learned sages become imbued with faith and worship Your lotus feet, to which all Vedic sacrifies in this world are offered, and which are the source of liberation.

 

the smrti-sastras (of which srimad bhagavatam is the best) so testify.

(Vs. 2.3.43)

 

12.13.11-12

adi-madhyavasanesu

vairagyakhyana-samyutam

hari-lila-katha-vrata-

mrtanandita-sat-suram

 

sarva-vedanta-saram yad

brahmatmaikatva-laksanam

vastv advitiyam tan-nistham

kaivalyaika-prayojanam

 

From beginning to end, the Srimad Bhagavatam is full of narrations that encourage renunciation of material life, as well as nectarean accounts of Lord Hari's transcendental pastimes, which give ecstacy to the saintly devotees and demigods. This Bhagavatam is the essence of all Vedanta philosophy because its subject matter is the Absolute Truth, which, while nondifferent from the spirit soul, is the ultimate reality, one without a second. This goal of this literature is exclusive devotional service unto that Supreme Truth.

 

 

Adhikarana 18:

The Avataras Of Brahman Are Not Like The Jivas,

For The Avataras Are Brahman.                     

 

the individual spirit soul cannot be equated with the supreme lord's avatara forms, no more than the light of a firefly can be equated with the light of the sun.

(Vs. 2.3.44)

 

6.16.46

viditam ananta samastam

tava jagad-atmano janair ihacaritam

vijnapyam parama-guroh

kiyad iva savitur iva khadyotaih

 

O unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead, whatever a living entity does in this material world is well known to You because You are the Supersoul. In the presence of the sun there is nothing to be revealed by the light of a glowworm. Similarly, because You know everything, in Your presence there is nothing for me to make known.

 

the smrti-sastras (of which srimad bhagavatam is the best) declare the avataras to be direct plenary and subplenary expansions of the supreme lord, whereas the individual souls are expansions of the supreme lord's marginal potency.

(Vs. 2.3.45)

 

1.3.28

ete camsa-kalah pumsah

krsnas tu bhagavan svayam

indrari-vyakulam lokam

mrdayanti yuge yuge

 

All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists.

 

7.3.34

anantavyakta-rupena

yenedam akhilam tatam

cid-acic-chakti-yuktaya

tasmai bhagavate namah

 

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme, who in his unlimited, unmanifested form has expanded the cosmic manifestation, the form of the totality of the universe. He possesses external and internal energies and the mixed energy called the marginal potency, which consists of all the living entities.

 

the individual souls are candidates for bondage to matter and liberation from matter. the avataras are always transcendental and descend to deliver the conditioned souls.

(Vs. 2.3.46)

 

6.16.57, 58

yad etad vismrtam pumso

mad-bhavam bhinnam atmanah

tatah samsara etasya

dehad deho mrter mrtih

 

When a living entity, thinking himself different from Me, forgets his spiritual identity of qualitative oneness with Me in eternity, knowledge and bliss, his material, conditional life begins. In other words, instead of identifying his interest with Mine, he becomes interested in his bodily expansions like his wife, children and material possessions. In this way, by the influence of his actions, one body comes from another, and after one death, another death takes place.

 

labdhveha manusim yonim

jnana-vijnana-sambhavam

atmanam yo na buddhyeta

na kvacit ksemam apnuyat

 

A human being can attain perfection in life by self-realization through the Vedic literature and its practical application. This is possible especially for a human being born in India, the land of piety. A man who obtains birth in such a convenient position but does not understand his self is unable to achieve the highest perfection, even if he is exalted to life in the higher planetary systems.

 

yasyavatara jnayante

sariresv asaririnah

tais tair atulyatisayair

viryair dehisv asangataih

 

sa bhavan sarva-lokasya

bhavaya vibhavaya ca

avatirno 'msa-bhagena

sampratam patir asisam

 

Appearing in bodies like those of an ordinary fish, tortoise and hog, You exhibit activities impossible for such creatures to perform—extraordinary, incomparable, transcendental activities of unlimited power and strength. These bodies of Yours, therefore, are not made of material elements, but are incarnations of Your Supreme Personality. You are the same Supreme Personality of Godhead, who have now appeared, with full potency, for the benefit of all living entities within this material world.

 

conditioned souls are imperfect. they are never to be mistaken for the the all-perfect avataras of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.3.47)

 

8.24.2, 3, 5, 6

yad-artham adadhad rupam

matsyam loka jugupsitam

tamah-prakrti-durmarsam

karma-grasta ivesvarah

 

etan no bhagavan sarvam

yathavad vaktum arhasi

uttamasloka-caritam

sama-loka-sukhavaham

 

What was the purpose for which the Supreme Personality of Godhead accepted the abominable form of a fish, exactly as an ordinary living being accepts different forms under the laws of karma? The form of a fish is certainly condemned and full of terrible pain. O my lord, what was the purpose of this incarnation? Kindly explain this to us, for hearing about the pastimes of the Lord is auspicious for everyone.

 

sri-suka uvaca

go-vipra-sura-sadhunam

chandasam api cesvarah

raksam icchams tanur dhatte

dharmasyarthasya caiva hi

 

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, for the sake of protecting the cows, brahmanas, demigods, devotees, the Vedic literature, religious principles, and principles to fulfill the purpose of life, the Supreme Personality of Godhead accepts the forms of incarnations.

 

uccavacesu bhutesu

caran vayur ivesvarah

noccavacatvam bhajate

nirgunatvad dhiyo gunaih

 

Like the air passing through different types of atmosphere, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although appearing sometimes as a human being and sometimes as a lower animal, is always transcendental. Because He is above the material modes of nature, He is unaffected by higher and lower forms.

 

while it is a fact that the avatara and the living entities are expansions of the supreme lord, it is foolish to argue that they are therefore equal.

(Vs. 2.3.48)

3.6.8

esa hy asesa-sattvanam

atmamsah paramatmanah

adyo 'vataro yatrasau

bhuta-gramo vibhavyate

 

The gigantic universal form of the Supreme Lord is the first incarnation and plenary portion of the Supersoul. He is the Self of an unlimited number of living entities, and in Him rests the aggregate creation, which thus flourishes.

 

2.10.42

sa evedam jagad-dhata

bhagavan dharma-rupa-dhrk

pusnati sthapayan visvam

tiryan-nara-suradibhih

 

He, the Personality of Godhead, as the maintainer of all in the universe, appears in different incarnations after establishing the creation, and thus He reclaims all kinds of conditioned souls amongst the humans, the nonhumans and the demigods.

 

 

Adhikarana 19:

The Individual Spirit Souls Are Not Identically The Same.                               

 

though the individual souls share the same spiritual nature, their fates are diverse. thus there are differences between them.

(Vs. 2.3.49)

 

4.29.30-31

ksut-parito yatha dinah

sarameyo grham grham

caran vindati yad-distam

dandam odanam eva va

 

tatha kamasayo jiva

uccavaca-patha bhraman

upary adho va madhye va

yati distam priyapriyam

 

The living entity is exactly like a dog, who, overcome with hunger, goes from door to door for some food. According to his destiny, he sometimes receives punishment and is driven out and at other times receives a little food to eat. Similarly, the living entity, being influenced by so many desires, wanders in different species of life according to destiny. Sometimes he is high, and sometimes he is low. Sometimes he goes to the heavenly planets, sometimes to hell, sometimes to the middle planets, and so on.

 

the diverse destinations of the living beings cannot be understood only in terms of desire, for desire is governed by unseen fate.

(Vs. 2.3.50)

 

6.1.54

labdhva nimittam avyaktam

vyaktavyaktam bhavaty uta

yatha-yoni yatha-bijam

svabhavena baliyasa

 

The fruitive activities a living being performs, whether pious or impious, are the unseen cause for the fulfillment of his desires. This unseen cause is the root for the living entity's different bodies. Because of his intense desire, the living entity takes birth in a particular family and receives a body which is either like that of his mother or like that of his father. The gross and subtle bodies are created according to his desire.

 

10.1.51

agner yatha daru-viyoga-yogayor

adrstato 'nyan na nimittam asti

evam hi jantor api durvibhavyah

sarira-samyoga-viyoga-hetuh

 

When a fire, for some unseen reason, leaps over one piece of wood and sets fire to the next, the reason is destiny. Similarly, when a living being accepts one kind of body and leaves aside another, there is no other reason than unseen destiny.

 

the diverse destinations of the living beings cannot be understood only in terms of their particular environments (heavenly, hellish, etc.), for they attain their environments due to unseen fate.

(Vs. 2.3.51)

 

4.6.45

tvam karmanam mangala mangalanam

kartuh sva-lokam tanuse svah param va

amangalanam ca tamisram ulbanam

viparyayah kena tad eva kasyacit

 

O most auspicious lord, you have ordained the heavenly planets, the spiritual Vaikuntha planets and the impersonal Brahman sphere as the respective destinations of the performers of auspicious activities. Similarly, for others, who are miscreants, you have destined different kinds of hells which are horrible and ghastly. Yet sometimes it is found that their destinations are just the opposite. It is very difficult to ascertain the cause of this.

 

 

z

                                  


CHAPTER EIGHT              

[Vedanta-sutra Reference: Second Adhyaya, Pada Four]

                                   

 

• Contents of Chapter Eight •

 

1. Brahman is the origin of the vital prana.

2. The senses are eleven.

3. The senses are atomic in size.

4. The vital prana, the life-force, has an origin.

5. The vital prana is not air.

6. The vital prana is an instrument of the soul.

7. The vital prana is the primary agent of the soul.

8. The vital prana has five functions.

9. The vital prana is atomic.

10. Brahman is the motive force behind the pranas.

11. The vital prana is not a sense.

12. The forms of the material world are created by Brahman.

13. The vehicles of the soul are made from earth.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: Brahman Is The Origin Of The Vital Prana.      

 

as the elements beginning with ether are manifest by the supreme lord, so too is the vital prana (life force).

(Vs. 2.4.1)

 

2.10.15

antah sarira akasat

purusasya vicestatah

ojah saho balam jajne

tatah prano mahan asuh

 

From the sky situated within the transcendental body of the manifesting Maha-Visnu, sense energy, mental force and bodily strength are all generated, as well as the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.

 

as was shown before, 'prana' is a name of the supreme lord as well as the name of the life force he creates. in the sruti-sastra, the original prana is addressed in the plural (pranah). this indicates the variegated manifestations of the one original supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.4.2)

 

2.10.36

sa vacya-vacakataya

bhagavan brahma-rupa-dhrk

nama-rupa-kriya dhatte

sakarmakarmakah parah

 

He, the Personality of Godhead, manifests Himself in a transcendental form, being the subject of His transcendental name, quality, pastimes, entourage and transcendental variegatedness. Although He is unaffected by all such activities, He appears to be so engaged.

 


the plurality of the word pranah cannot be applied to the created life force, because pranah is identified with 'asat.' as was shown before, asat is the state of nonmanifestation after the annhilation of the cosmos. asat is also a name of the supreme lord. hence pranah cannot refer to material variety. the variety indicated is transcendental.

(Vs. 2.4.3)

 

2.10.43, 44

tatah kalagni-rudratma

yat srstam idam atmanah

sanniyacchati tat kale

ghananikam ivanilah

 

Thereafter, at the end of the millennium, the Lord Himself in the

form of Rudra, the destroyer, will annihilate the complete creation as

the wind displaces the clouds.

 

ittham-bhavena kathito

bhagavan bhagavattamah

nettham-bhavena hi param

drastum arhanti surayah

 

The great transcendentalists thus describe the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the pure devotees deserve to see more glorious things in transcendence, beyond these features.

 

speech exists before the cosmic manifestation. hence prana as the name of the supreme lord is a word of that transcendental speech, not the mundane speech of the created world.

(Vs. 2.4.4)

 

6.16.51

aham vai sarva-bhutani

bhutatma bhuta-bhavanah

sabda-brahma param brahma

mamobhe sasvati tanu

 

All living entities, moving and nonmoving, are My expansions and are separate from Me. I am the Supersoul of all living beings, who exist because I manifest them. I am the form of the transcendental vibrations like omkara and Hare Krsna Hare Rama, and I am the Supreme Absolute Truth. These two forms of Mine—namely, the transcendental sound and the eternally blissful spiritual form of the Deity, are My eternal forms; they are not material.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: The Senses Are Eleven.                

 

it may be falsely argued on the basis of certain sastric statements that there are seven senses: the five cognitive senses, the mind and intelligence. these seven are said to accompany the soul to his next destination after death. the proponents of this standpoint argue that the five working instruments (hand, leg, etc.) are not really senses because they are less important than the cognitive senses and because they do not accompany the soul when he leaves the body.

(Vs. 2.4.5)

 


11.22.37

sri-bhagavan uvaca

manah karma-mayam nrnam

indriyaih pancabhir yutam

lokal lokam prayaty anya

atma tad anuvartate

 

Lord Krsna said: The material mind of men is shaped by the reactions of fruitive work. Along with the five senses, it travels from one material body to another. The spirit soul, although different from this mind, follows it.

 

but in fact the senses are to be counted as eleven: five cognitive senses, five working senses and the mind (which may include false ego, intelligence and contaminated consciousness).

(Vs. 2.4.6)

 

5.11.9, 10

ekadasasan manaso hi vrttaya

akutayah panca dhiyo 'bhimanah

matrani karmani puram ca tasam

vadanti haikadasa vira bhumih

 

There are five working senses and five knowledge-acquiring senses. There is also the false ego. In this way, there are eleven items for the mind's functions. O hero, the objects of the senses [such as sound and touch], the organic activities [such as evacuation] and the different types of bodies, society, friendship and personality are considered by learned scholars the fields of activity for the functions of the mind.

 

gandhakrti-sparsa-rasa-sravamsi

visarga-raty-arty-abhijalpa-silpah

ekadasam svikaranam mameti

sayyam aham dvadadam eka ahuh

 

Sound, touch, form, taste and smell are the objects of the five knowledge-acquiring senses. Speech, touch, movement, evacuation and sexual intercourse are the objects of the working senses. Besides this, there is another conception by which one thinks, "This is my body, this is my society, this is my family, this is my nation," and so forth. This eleventh function, that of the mind, is called the false ego. According to some philosophers, this is the twelfth function, and its field of activity is the body.

 

3.26.14

mano buddhir ahankaras

cittam ity antar-atmakam

caturdha laksyate bhedo

vrttya laksana-rupaya

 

The internal, subtle senses are experienced as having four aspects, in the shape of mind, intelligence, ego and contaminated consciousness. Distinctions between them can be made only by different functions, since they represent different characteristics.

 

 


Adhikarana 3: The Senses Are Atomic In Size.            

 

the eleven senses are 'anavah', or atomic in size. they quit the gross body along with the soul, for they are features of the subtle conditioning of the soul.

(Vs. 2.4.7)

 

3.26.31

taijasanindriyany eva

kriya-jaana-vibhagasah

pranasya hi kriya-saktir

buddher vijnana-saktita

 

Egoism in the mode of passion produces two kinds of senses—the senses for acquiring knowledge and the senses of action. The senses of action depend on the vital energy, and the senses for acquiring knowledge depend on intelligence.

 

4.27.70

naham mameti bhavo 'yam

puruse vyavadhiyate

yavad buddhi-mano-'ksartha-

guna-vyuho hy anadiman

 

As long as there exists the subtle material body composed of intelligence, mind, senses, sense objects, and the reactions of the material qualities, the consciousness of false identification and its relative objective, the gross body, exist as well.

 

4.28.23

pasuvad yavanair esa

niyamanah svakam ksayam

anvadravann anupathah

socanto bhrsam aturah

 

When the Yavanas were taking King Puranjana away to their place, binding him like an animal, the King's followers became greatly aggrieved. While they lamented, they were forced to go along with him.

 

 

Adhikarana 4: The Vital Prana, The Life-Force, Has An Origin.   

 

it might be falsely argued that if the prana or life force accompanies the soul at the time of death, this prana must have no origin, just as the soul has no origin. but this standpoint is false. prana is created, as the elements of the universe are created.

(Vs. 2.4.8)

 

2.10.15

antah sarira akasat

purusasya vicestatah

ojah saho balam jajne

tatah prano mahan asuh

 

From the sky situated within the transcendental body of the manifesting Maha-Visnu, sense energy, mental force and bodily strength are all generated, as well as the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.

 

 

Adhikarana 5: The Vital Prana Is Not Air.             

 

it might be falsely argued on the basis of certain sastric statements that the prana or life force is the material element air (or the vibration of air, the activities of air or a condition of air). but in fact prana is created separately from that element; the scriptures likewise describe their functions separately. it is thus a special kind of air.

(Vs. 2.4.9)

 

2.10.15-17

antah sarira akasat

purusasya vicestatah

ojah saho balam jajne

tatah prano mahan asuh

 

From the sky situated within the transcendental body of the manifesting Maha-Visnu, sense energy, mental force and bodily strength are all generated, as well as the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.

 

anuprananti yam pranah

pranantam sarva jantusu

apanantam apananti

nara-devam ivanugah

 

As the followers of a king follow their lord, similarly when the total energy is in motion, all other living entities move, and when the total energy stops endeavoring, all other living entities stop sensual activities.

 

pranenaksipata ksut trd

antara jayate vibhoh

pipasato jaksatas ca

pran mukham nirabhidyata

 

The living force, being agitated by the virat-purusa, generated hunger and thirst, and when He desired to drink and eat, the mouth opened.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: The Vital Prana Is An Instrument Of The Soul.    

 

it may be falsely argued that the vital prana is itself the individual spirit soul. it is really an instrument associated with the soul for as long as the soul is in material existence.

(Vs. 2.4.10)

 

11.3.39

andesu pesisu tarusv aviniscitesu

prano hi jivam upadhavati tatra tatra

sanne yad indriya-gane 'hami ca prasupte

kuta-stha asayam rte tad-anusmrtir nah

 


The spirit soul is born in many different species of life within the material world. Some species are born from eggs, others from embryos, others from the seeds of plants and trees, and others from perspiration. But in all species of life the prana, or vital air, remains unchanging and follows the spirit soul from one body to another. Similarly, the spirit soul is eternally the same despite its material condition of life. We have practical experience of this. When we are absorbed in deep sleep without dreaming, the material senses become inactive, and even the mind and false ego are merged into a dormant condition. But althought the senses, mind and false ego are inactive, once remembers upon waking that he, the soul, was peacefully sleeping.

 

 

Adhikarana 7: The Vital Prana Is The Primary Agent Of The Soul.  

 

the vital prana, being neutral and pervading the whole body, has no particular function like the senses. it is the soul's primary agent for governing the senses.

(Vs. 2.4.11)

 

4.16.13

antar bahis ca bhutanam

pasyan karmani caranaih

udasina ivadhyakso

vayur atmeva dehinam

 

King Prthu will be able to see all the internal and external activities of every one of his citizens. Still no one will be able to know his system of espionage, and he himself will remain neutral regarding all matters of glorification or vilification paid to him. He will be exactly like air, the life force within the body, which is exhibited internally and externally but is always neutral to all affairs.

 

 

Adhikarana 8: The Vital Prana Has Five Functions.         

 

just as the mind is said to have multiple functions, so the prana has five functions.

(Vs. 2.4.12)

 

4.29.6, 7

sakhaya indriya-gana

jnanam karma ca yat-krtam

sakhyas tad-vrttayah pranah

panca-vrttir yathoragah

 

The five working senses and the five senses that acquire knowledge are all male friends of Puranjani. The living entity is assisted by these senses in acquiring knowledge and engaging in activity. The engagements of the senses are known as girl friends, and the serpent, which was described as having five heads, is the life air acting within the five circulatory processes.

 

brhad-balam mano vidyad

ubhayendriya-nayakam

pancalah panca visaya

yan-madhye nava-kham puram

 

The eleventh attendant, who is the commander of the others, is known as the mind. He is the leader of the senses both in the acquisition of knowledge and in the performance of work. The Pancala kingdom is that atmosphere in which the five sense objects are enjoyed. Within that Pancala kingdom is the city of the body, which has nine gates.

 

 


Adhikarana 9: The Vital Prana Is Atomic.              

 

it might be falsely argued that the vital prana is all-pervading. being the agent of the atomic soul, the vital prana is really atomic; thus it leaves the body along with the soul at the time of death.

(Vs. 2.4.13)

 

4.28.24

purim vihayopagata

uparuddho bhujangamah

yada tam evanu puri

visirna prakrtim gata

 

The serpent, who had already been arrested by the soldiers of Yavana-raja and was out of the city, began to follow his master along with the others. As soon as they all left the city, it was immediately dismantled and smashed to dust.

 

 

Adhikarana 10: Brahman Is The Motive Force Behind The Pranas.   

 

the secondary pranas activate the physical senses under the shelter of the vital prana, which is moved by the supersoul. the pranas do not move themselves, nor are they moved by the devas, nor are they even moved by the individual spirit soul alone.

(Vs. 2.4.14)

 

7.2.45

na srota nanuvaktayam

mukhyo 'py atra mahan asuh

yas tv ihendriyavan atma

sa canyah prana-dehayoh

 

In the body the most important substance is the life air, but that also is neither the listener nor the speaker. Beyond even the life air, the soul also can do nothing, for the Supersoul is actually the director, in cooperation with the individual soul. The Supersoul conducting the activities of the body is different from the body and living force.

 

5.20.28

antah-pravisya bhutani

yo bibharty atma-ketubhih

antaryamisvarah saksat

patu no yad-vase sphutam

 

[The inhabitants of Sakadvipa worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of Vayu in the following words.] O Supreme Person, situated as the Supersoul within the body, You direct the various actions of the different airs, such as prana, and thus You maintain all living entities. O Lord, O Supersoul of everyone, O controller of the cosmic manifestation under whom everything exists, may You protect us from all dangers.

 

the brhad-aranyaka upanisad declares the individual soul to also be a ruler of the pranas by his enjoyment of them, for instance during sleep. the demigods are also rulers of the pranas because they define the activities of the senses. all this is under the supervision of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 2.4.25)

 


3.26.71

yatha prasuptam purusam

pranendriya-mano-dhiyah

prabhavanti vina yena

notthapayitum ojasa

 

When a man is sleeping, all his material assets—namely the vital energy, the senses for recording knowledge, the senses for working, the mind and the intelligence—cannot arouse him. He can be aroused only when the Supersoul helps him.

 

6.4.25

deho 'savo 'ksa manavo bhuta-matram

atmanam anyam ca viduh param yat

sarvam puman veda gunams ca taj-jno

na veda sarva jnam anantam ide

 

Because they are only matter, the body, the life airs, the external and internal senses, the five gross elements and the subtle sense objects [form, taste, smell, sound and touch] cannot know their own nature, the nature of the other senses or the nature of their controllers. But the living being, because of his spiritual nature, can know his body, the life airs, the senses, the elements and the sense objects, and he can also know the three qualities that form their roots. Nevertheless, although the living being is completely aware of them, he is unable to see the Supreme Being, who is omniscient and unlimited. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

 

the supersoul is the eternal controller of the individual spirit souls and the demigods.

(Vs. 2.4.16)

 

5.11.13-14

ksetrajna atma purusah puranah

saksat svayam jyotir ajah paresah

narayano bhagavan vasudevah

sva-mayayatmany avadhiyamanah

 

yathanilah sthavara jangamanam

atma-svarupena nivista iset

evam paro bhagavan vasudevah

ksetrajna atmedam anupravistah

 

There are two kinds of ksetrajna—the living entity, as explained above, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is explained as follows. He is the all-pervading cause of creation. He is full in Himself and is not dependent on others. He is perceived by hearing and direct perception. He is self-effulgent and does not experience birth, death, old age or disease. He is the controller of all the demigods, beginning with Lord Brahma. He is called Narayana, and He is the shelter of living entities after the annihilation of this material world. He is full of all opulences, and He is the resting place of everything material. He is therefore known as Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By His own potency, He is present within the hearts of all living entities, just as the air or vital force is within the bodies of all beings, moving and nonmoving. In this way He controls the body. In His partial feature, the Supreme Personality of Godhead enters all bodies and controls them.

 

 

Adhikarana 11: The Vital Prana Is Not A Sense.           

 

the vital prana is not a sense organ, though the subordinate pranas may be taken as such because they move through the apertures of the sensory gates.

(Vs. 2.4.17)

 

4.28.56-58

pancaramam nava-dvaram

eka-palam tri-kosthakam

sat-kulam panca-vipanam

panca-prakrti stri-dhavam

 

In that city [the material body] there are five gardens, nine gates, one protector, three apartments, six families, five stores, five material elements, and one woman who is lord of the house.

 

pancendriyartha arama

dvarah prana nava prabho

tejo-'b-annani kosthani

kulam indriya-sangrahah

 

My dear friend, the five gardens are the five objects of sense enjoyment, and the protector is the life air, which passes through the nine gates. The three apartments are the chief ingredients—fire, water and earth. The six families are the aggregate total of the mind and five senses.

 

vipanas tu kriya-saktir

bhuta-prakrtir avyaya

sakty-adhisah pumams tv atra

pravisto navabudhyate

 

The five stores are the five working sensory organs. They transact their business through the combined forces of the five elements, which are eternal. Behind all this activity is the soul. The soul is a person and an enjoyer in reality. However, because he is now hidden within the city of the body, he is devoid of knowledge.

 

in the vedic description of creation, the vital prana is distinguished from the senses. therefore it is not a sense itself.

(Vs. 2.4.18)

 

3.26.54

nirabhidyatasya prathamam

mukham vani tato 'bhavat

vanya vahnir atho nase

pranoto ghrana etayoh

 

First of all a mouth appeared in Him, and then came forth the organ of speech, and with it the god of fire, the deity who presides over that organ. Then a pair of nostrils appeared, and in them appeared the olfactory sense, as well as prana, the vital air.

 

by the movement of the vital prana, the living entity maintains his conception of the body as the self. only when the movement of the life air is arrested is the bodily identification submerged in ignorance. thus is the prana distinguished from the senses, for even if the movements of all the senses are arrested, the bodily identification remains.

(Vs. 2.4.19)

 

4.29.71

supti-murcchopatapesu

pranayana-vighatatah

nehate 'ham iti jnanam

mrtyu-prajvarayor api

 

When the living entity is in deep sleep, when he faints, when there is some great shock on account of severe loss, at the time of death, or when the body temperature is very high, the movement of the life air is arrested. At that time the living entity loses knowledge of identifying the body with the self.

 

 

Adhikarana 12:

The Forms Of The Material World Are Created By Brahman                              

 

 

it might be falsely argued that an individual spirit soul (e.g. caturmukha brahma) is the creative agent of the supreme brahman, and that though the material elements originate from the supreme, they are given forms and names by this jiva who enters into the elements like a spy enters a hostile army on behalf of a king.

 

this standpoint is rejected, because the vedic scriptures teach that the supreme lord is both the primary and secondary cause of creation.

(Vs. 2.4.20)

 

2.5.22-33

kalad guna-vyatikarah

parinamah svabhavatah

karmano janma mahatah

purusadhisthitad abhut

 

After the incarnation of the first purusa [Karanarnavasayi Visnu], the mahat-tattva, or the principles of material creation, take place, and then time is manifested, and in course of time the three qualities appear. Nature means the three qualitative appearances. They transform into activities.

 

mahatas tu vikurvanad

rajah-sattvopa brmhitat

tamah-pradhanas tv abhavad

dravya jnana-kriyatma kah

 

Material activities are caused by the mahat-tattva's being agitated. At first there is transformation of the modes of goodness and passion, and later—due to the mode of ignorance—matter, its knowledge, and different activities of material knowledge come into play.

 

so 'hankara iti prokto

vikurvan samabhut tridha

vaikarikas taijasas ca

tamasas ceti yad-bhida

dravya-saktih kriya-saktir

jnana-saktir iti prabho

 

The self-centered materialistic ego, thus being transformed into three features, becomes known as the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance in three divisions, namely the powers that evolve matter, knowledge of material creations, and the intelligence that guides such materialistic activities. Narada, you are quite competent to understand this.

 

tamasad api bhutader

vikurvanad abhun nabhah

tasya matra gunah sabdo

lingam yad drastr-drsyayoh

 

From the darkness of false ego, the first of the five elements, namely the sky, is generated. Its subtle form is the quality of sound, exactly as the seer is in relationship with the seen.

 

nabhaso 'tha vikurvanad

abhut sparsa-guno 'nilah

paranvayac chabdavams ca

prana ojah saho balam

 

vayor api vikurvanat

kala-karma-sva bhavatah

udapadyata tejo vai

rupavat sparsa-sa bdavat

 

tejasas tu vikurvanad

asid ambho rasatmakam

rupavat sparsavac cambho

ghosavac ca paranvayat

 

visesas tu vikurvanad

ambhaso gandhavan abhut

paranvayad rasa-sparsa-

sabda-rupa-gunanvitah

 

Because the sky is transformed, the air is generated with the quality of touch, and by previous succession the air is also full of sound and the basic principles of duration of life: sense perception, mental power and bodily strength. When the air is transformed in course of time and nature's course, fire is generated, taking shape with the sense of touch and sound. Since fire is also transformed, there is a manifestation of water, full of juice and taste. As previously, it also has form and touch and is also full of sound. And water, being transformed from all variegatedness on earth, appears odorous and, as previously, becomes qualitatively full of juice, touch, sound and form respectively.

 

vaikarikan mano jajne

deva vaikarika dasa

dig-vatarka-praceto 'svi-

vahnindropendra-mitra-kah

 

From the mode of goodness the mind is generated and becomes manifest, as also the ten demigods controlling the bodily movements. Such demigods are known as the controller of directions, the controller of air, the sun-god, the father of Daksa Prajapati, the Asvini-kumaras, the fire-god, the King of heaven, the worshipable deity in heaven, the chief of the Adityas, and Brahmaji, the Prajapati. All come into existence.

 

taijasat tu vikurvanad

indriyani dasa bhavan

jnana-saktih kriya-saktir

buddhih pranas ca taijasau

srotram tvag-ghrana-drg jihva

vag-dor-medhranghri-payavah

 

By further transformation of the mode of passion, the sense organs like the ear, skin, nose, eyes, tongue, mouth, hands, genitals, legs, and the outlet for evacuating, together with intelligence and living energy, are all generated.

 

yadaite 'sangata bhava

bhutendriya-mano-gunah

yadayatana-nirmane

na sekur brahma-vittama

 

O Narada, best of the transcendentalists, the forms of the body cannot take place as long as these created parts, namely the elements, senses, mind and modes of nature, are not assembled.

 

tada samhatya canyonyam

bhagavac-chakti-coditah

sad-asattvam upadaya

cobhayam sasrjur hy adah

 

Thus when all these became assembled by force of the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this universe certainly came into being by accepting both the primary and secondary causes of creation.

 

 

Adhikarana 13: The Vehicles Of The Soul Are Made From Earth.    

 

various sastric texts indicate that the bodies of living beings are made from earth, water or fire. which is correct? the question is resolved thusly: these three elements combine to form seven organic compounds that make up the gross physical body. of the three elements, earth is predominant in the human form of body.

(Vs. 2.4.21-22)

 

2.10.31

tvak-carma-mamsa-rudhira-

medo-majjasthi-dhatavah

bhumy-ap-tejomayah sapta

prano vyomambu-vayubhih

 

The seven elements of the body, namely the thin layer on the skin, the skin itself, the flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone, are all made of earth, water and fire, whereas the life breath is produced by the sky, water and air.

 

 

z

 


CHAPTER NINE             

 [Vedanta-sutra Reference: Third Adhyaya, Pada One]

                                  

 

• Contents of Chapter Nine •

 

1. The soul's departure.

2. Is karma exhausted in heaven?

3. Do the impious also go to Candraloka?

4. The soul does not become ether, etc.

5. The soul's descent from ether to rain is quick.

6. The descending souls do not take birth among the plants.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: The Soul's Departure.                

 

chandogya upanisad declares that there are five sacrificial fires: heaven, rain, earth, man and woman. into them, five libations are poured by demigods acting as sacrificial priests. the five libations are: sraddha, soma, rain, food and seed. so illustrates the chandogya upanisad the path of the soul's departure from earth to heaven and back to earth again. in order for the soul to traverse this path, it must be accompanied by the elements of the subtle material body.

(Vs. 3.1.1)

 

6.1.51

tad etat sodasa-kalam

lingam sakti-trayam mahat

dhatte 'nusamsrtim pumsi

harsa-soka-bhayartidam

 

The subtle body is endowed with sixteen parts—the five knowledge-acquiring senses, the five working senses, the five objects of sense gratification, and the mind. This subtle body is an effect of the three modes of material nature. It is composed of insurmountably strong desires, and therefore it causes the living entity to transmigrate from one body to another in human life, animal life and life as a demigod. When the living entity gets the body of a demigod, he is certainly very jubilant, when he gets a human body he is always in lamentation, and when he gets the body of an animal, he is always afraid. In all conditions, however, he is actually miserable. His miserable condition is called samsrti, or transmigration in material life.

 

it is said that water goes with the soul as it departs.

(Vs. 3.1.2)

 

2.10.31

tvak-carma-mamsa-rudhira-

medo-majjasthi-dhatavah

bhumy-ap-tejomayah sapta

prano vyomambu-vayubhih

 

The seven elements of the body, namely the thin layer on the skin, the skin itself, the flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone, are all made of earth, water and fire, whereas the life breath is produced by the sky, water and air.

 


the life breath and the other pranas are sheltered in the subtle body. when the gross body is cast off, the subtle body and the life airs remain unchanged.

(Vs. 3.1.3)

 

4.29.60

narada uvaca

yenaivarabhate karma

tenaivamutra tat puman

bhunkte hy avyavadhanena

lingena manasa svayam

 

The great sage Narada continued: The living entity acts in a gross body in this life. This body is forced to act by the subtle body, composed of mind, intelligence and ego. After the gross body is lost, the subtle body is still there to enjoy or suffer. Thus there is no change.

 

4.22.37

tat tvam narendra jagatam atha tasthusam ca

dehendriyasu-dhisanatmabhir avrtanam

yah ksetravit-tapataya hrdi visvag avih

pratyak cakasti bhagavams tam avehi so 'smi

 

Sanat-kumara advised the King: Therefore, my dear King Prthu, try to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is living within everyone's heart along with the individual soul, in each and every body, either moving or not moving. The individual souls are fully covered by the gross material body and subtle body made of the life air and intelligence.

 

objection: brhad-aranyaka upanisad states that the life breath and the powers of the senses enter the material elements at the time of death. it is therefore not correct to say that the subtle body and the pranas accompany the soul to his next destination.

 

reply: this sutra uses the word bhaktatvat (metaphorical) to settle your doubt. the passage from the brhad-aranyaka upanisad metaphorically illustrates that the functions of subtle body and the pranas are suspended when the soul is separated from the gross elements of the physical body at the time of death. but these subtle functions do indeed follow the soul to his next destination, unless the soul is liberated from all material conditioning. only the material elements of the gross and subtle bodies of a liberated soul merge into the totality of matter at the time of death.

(Vs. 3.1.4)

 

4.29.71

supti-murcchopatapesu

pranayana-vighatatah

nehate 'ham iti jnanam

mrtyu-prajvarayor api

 

When the living entity is in deep sleep, when he faints, when there is some great shock on account of severe loss, at the time of death, or when the body temperature is very high, the movement of the life air is arrested. At that time the living entity loses knowledge of identifying the body with the self.

 

4.23.13, 15-17

evam sa vira-pravarah

samyojyatmanam atmani

brahma-bhuto drdham kale

tatyaja svam kalevaram

 

In due course of time, when Prthu Maharaja was to give up his body, he fixed his mind firmly upon the lotus feet of Krsna, and thus, completely situated on the brahma-bhuta platform, he gave up the material body.

 

utsarpayams tu tam murdhni

kramenavesya nihsprhah

vayum vayau ksitau kayam

tejas tejasy ayuyujat

 

In this way, Prthu Maharaja gradually raised his air of life up to the hole in his skull, whereupon he lost all desire for material existence. Gradually he merged his air of life with the totality of air, his body with the totality of earth, and the fire within his body with the totality of fire.

 

khany akase dravam toye

yatha-sthanam vibhagasah

ksitim ambhasi tat tejasy

ado vayau nabhasy amum

 

In this way, according to the different positions of the various parts of the body, Prthu Maharaja merged the holes of his senses with the sky; his bodily liquids, such as blood and various secretions, with the totality of water; and he merged earth with water, then water with fire, fire with air, air with sky, and so on.

 

indriyesu manas tani

tan-matresu yathodbhavam

bhutadinamuny utkrsya

mahaty atmani sandadhe

 

He amalgamated the mind with the senses and the senses with the sense objects, according to their respective positions, and he also amalgamated the material ego with the total material energy, mahat-tattva.

 

the conclusion is that when a conditioned soul leaves the gross body at the time of death, he is accompanied by the subtle body (including the life air, which has a watery aspect).

(Vs. 3.1.5)

 

11.22.37

sri-bhagavan uvaca

manah karma-mayam nrnam

indriyaih pancabhir yutam

lokal lokam prayaty anya

atma tad anuvartate

 

Lord Krsna said: The material mind of men is shaped by the reactions of fruitive work. Along with the five senses, it travels from one material body to another. The spirit soul, although different from this mind, follows it.

 

11.3.39

andesu pesisu tarusv aviniscitesu

prano hi jivam upadhavati tatra tatra

sanne yad indriya-gane 'hami ca prasupte

kuta-stha asayam rte tad-anusmrtir nah

 


The spirit soul is born in many different species of life within the material world. Some species are born from eggs, others from embryos, others from the seeds of plants and trees, and others from perspiration. But in all species of life the prana, or vital air, remains unchanging and follows the spirit soul from one body to another. Similarly, the spirit soul is eternally the same despite its material condition of life. We have practical experience of this. When we are absorbed in deep sleep without dreaming, the material senses become inactive, and even the mind and false ego are merged into a dormant condition. But althought the senses, mind and false ego are inactive, once remembers upon waking that he, the soul, was peacefully sleeping.

 

2.10.31

tvak-carma-mamsa-rudhira-

medo-majjasthi-dhatavah

bhumy-ap-tejomayah sapta

prano vyomambu-vayubhih

 

The seven elements of the body, namely the thin layer on the skin, the skin itself, the flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone, are all made of earth, water and fire, whereas the life breath is produced by the sky, water and air.

 

by worshiping the demigods and forefathers, the conditioned soul may transmigrate to the moon planet and enjoy soma-rasa. but due to his strong material desires, he remains always bound by the subtle body. thus he is forced to return to earth again.

(3.1.6)

 

6.1.51

tad etat sodasa-kalam

lingam sakti-trayam mahat

dhatte 'nusamsrtim pumsi

harsa-soka-bhayartidam

 

The subtle body is endowed with sixteen parts—the five knowledge-acquiring senses, the five working senses, the five objects of sense gratification, and the mind. This subtle body is an effect of the three modes of material nature. It is composed of insurmountably strong desires, and therefore it causes the living entity to transmigrate from one body to another in human life, animal life and life as a demigod. When the living entity gets the body of a demigod, he is certainly very jubilant, when he gets a human body he is always in lamentation, and when he gets the body of an animal, he is always afraid. In all conditions, however, he is actually miserable. His miserable condition is called samsrti, or transmigration in material life.

 

3.32.2, 3

sa capi bhagavad-dharmat

kama-mudhah paran-mukhah

yajate kratubhir devan

pitrms ca sraddhayanvitah

 

Such persons are ever bereft of devotional service due to being too attached to sense gratification, and therefore, although they perform various kinds of sacrifices and take great vows to satisfy the demigods and forefathers, they are not interested in Krsna consciousness, devotional service.

 

tac-chraddhayakranta-matih

pitr-deva-vratah puman

gatva candramasam lokam

soma-pah punar esyati

 

Such materialistic persons, attracted by sense gratification and devoted to the forefathers and demigods, can be elevated to the moon, where they drink an extract of the soma plant. They again return to this planet.

 

because they are ignorant of the supreme lord, conditioned souls come under the influence of the modes of material nature and are attracted to serve the demigods.

(Vs. 3.1.7)

 

4.29.26-28

yadatmanam avijnaya

bhagavantam param gurum

purusas tu visajjeta

gunesu prakrteh sva-drk

 

gunabhimani sa tada

karmani kurute 'vasah

suklam krsnam lohitam va

yatha-karmabhijayate

 

The living entity by nature has minute independence to choose his own good or bad fortune, but when he forgets his supreme master, the Personality of Godhead, he gives himself up unto the modes of material nature. Being influenced by the modes of material nature, he identifies himself with the body and, for the interest of the body, becomes attached to various activities. Sometimes he is under the influence of the mode of ignorance, sometimes the mode of passion and sometimes the mode of goodness. The living entity thus gets different types of bodies under the modes of material nature.

 

suklat prakasa-bhuyisthal

lokan apnoti karhicit

duhkhodarkan kriyayasams

tamah-sokotkatan kvacit

 

Those who are situated in the mode of goodness act piously according to Vedic injunctions. Thus they are elevated to the higher planetary systems where the demigods live. Those who are influenced by the mode of passion engage in various types of productive activities in the planetary systems where human beings live. Similarly, those influenced by the mode of darkness are subjected to various types of misery and live in the animal kingdom.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: Is Karma Exhausted In Heaven?            

 

karma is not exhausted by the pious conditioned soul's term of heavenly enjoyment in the higher planets; therefore when he returns to earth from heaven, he brings with him residual karma.

(Vs. 3.1.8)

 

7.5.40

evam hi lokah kratubhih krta ami

ksayisnavah satisaya na nirmalah

tasmad adrsta-sruta-dusanam param

bhaktyoktayesam bhajatatma-labdhaye

 

It is learned from Vedic literature that by performing great sacrifices one may elevate himself to the heavenly planets. However, although life on the heavenly planets is hundreds and thousands of times more comfortable than life on earth, the heavenly planets are not pure [nirmalam], or free from the taint of material existence. The heavenly planets are also temporary, and therefore they are not the goal of life. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, however, has never been seen or heard to possess inebriety. Consequently, for your own benefit and self-realization, you must worship the Lord with great devotion, as described in the revealed scriptures.

 


11.2.6

bhajanti ye yatha devan

deva api tathaiva tan

chayeva karma-sacivah

sadhavo dina-vatsala

 

Those who worship the demigods receive reciprocation from the demigods in a way just corresponding to the offering. The demigods are attendents of karma, like a person's shadow, but sadhus are actually merciful to the fallen.

 

3.32.20

daksinena patharyamnah

pitr-lokam vrajanti te

prajam anu prajayante

smasananta-kriya-krtah

 

Such materialistic persons are allowed to go to the planet called Pitrloka by the southern course of the sun, but they again come back to this planet and take birth in their own families, beginning again the same fruitive activities from birth to the end of life.

 

5.5.5.

parabhavas tavad abodha jato

yavan na jijnasata atma-tattvam

yavat kriyas tavad idam mano vai

karmatmakam yena sarira-bandhah

 

As long as one does not inquire about the spiritual values of life, one is defeated and subjected to miseries arising from ignorance. Be it sinful or pious, karma has its resultant actions. If a person is engaged in any kind of karma, his mind is called karmatmaka, colored with fruitive activity. As long as the mind is impure, consciousness is unclear, and as long as one is absorbed in fruitive activity, he has to accept a material body.

 

the return of the soul to earth from heaven is by way of a different path than the ascent.

(Vs. 3.1.9)

 

7.15.50-51

dravya-suksma-vipakas ca

dhumo ratrir apaksayah

ayanam daksinam somo

darsa osadhi-virudhah

 

annam reta iti ksmesa

pitr-yanam punar-bhavah

ekaikasyenanupurvam

bhutva bhutveha jayate

 

My dear King Yudhisthira, when oblations of ghee and food grains like barley and sesame are offered in sacrifice, they turn into celestial smoke, which carries one to successively higher planetary systems like the kingdoms of Dhuma, Ratri, Krsna paksa, Daksinam and ultimately the moon. Then, however, the performers of sacrifice descend again to earth to become herbs, creepers, vegetables and food grains. These are eaten by different living entities and turned to semen, which is injected into female bodies. Thus one takes birth again and again.

 


all souls who desire sense gratification are conditioned by karma birth after birth.

(Vs. 3.1.10-12)

 

4.29.74, 75, 78

evam panca-vidham lingam

tri-vrt sodasa-vistrtam

esa cetanaya yukto

jiva ity abhidhiyate

 

The five sense objects, the five sense organs, the five knowledge-acquiring senses and the mind are the sixteen material expansions. These combine with the living entity and are influenced by the three modes of material nature. Thus the existence of the conditioned soul is understood.

 

anena puruso dehan

upadatte vimuncati

harsam sokam bhayam duhkham

sukham canena vindati

 

By virtue of the processes of the subtle body, the living entity develops and gives up gross bodies. This is known as the transmigration of the soul. Thus the soul becomes subjected to different types of so-called enjoyment, lamentation, fear, happiness and unhappiness.

 

yadaksais caritan dhyayan

karmany acinute 'sakrt

sati karmany avidyayam

bandhah karmany anatmanah

 

As long as we desire to enjoy sense gratification, we create material activities. When the living entity acts in the material field, he enjoys the senses, and while enjoying the senses, he creates another series of material activities. In this way the living entity becomes entrapped as a conditioned soul.

 

 

Adhikarana 3:

Do The Impious Also Go To Candraloka?        

 

it may be argued on the strength of the statement, 'all who leave this world go to candraloka' (kausitaki upanisad 1.2), that sinful souls are automatically promoted at death along with pious souls. after all, both the sinful and the pious souls are interested in the same thing—sense gratification.

(Vs. 3.1.13)

 

3.32.2, 3

sa capi bhagavad-dharmat

kama-mudhah paran-mukhah

yajate kratubhir devan

pitrms ca sraddhayanvitah

 

Such persons are ever bereft of devotional service due to being too attached to sense gratification, and therefore, although they perform various kinds of sacrifices and take great vows to satisfy the demigods and forefathers, they are not interested in Krsna consciousness, devotional service.

 


tac-chraddhayakranta-matih

pitr-deva-vratah puman

gatva candramasam lokam

soma-pah punar esyati

 

Such materialistic persons, attracted by sense gratification and devoted to the forefathers and demigods, can be elevated to the moon, where they drink an extract of the soma plant. They again return to this planet.

 

but the sruti-sastra (e.g. isopanisad: asurya nama te loka andhena tamasavrtah) describes the travels of the sinful souls to samyamana-pura (the city of yamaraja). there they are punished.

(Vs. 3.1.14)

 

3.30.33

kevalena hy adharmena

kutumba-bharanotsukah

yati jivo 'ndha-tamisram

caramam tamasah padam

 

Therefore a person who is very eager to maintain his family and kinsmen simply by black methods certainly goes to the darkest region of hell, which is known as Andha-tamisra.

 

the smrti-sastra (e.g. srimad-bhagavatam) also confirms this.

(Vs. 3.1.15)

 

3.30.23

tatra tatra patan chranto

murcchitah punar utthitah

patha papiyasa nitas

tarasa yama-sadanam

 

While passing on that road to the abode of Yamaraja, he falls down in fatigue, and sometimes he becomes unconscious, but he is forced to rise again. In this way he is very quickly brought to the presence of Yamaraja.

 

mahabharata describes seven important hells; but there are others also (described in srimad-bhagavatam, canto 5).

(Vs. 3.1.16)

 

5.26.7

tatra haike narakan eka-vimsatim ganayanti atha tams te rajan nama-rupa-laksanato 'nukramisyamas tamisro 'ndhatamisro rauravo maharauravah kumbhipakah kalasutram asipatravanam sukaramukham andhakupah krmibhojanah sandamsas taptasurmir vajrakantaka-salmali vaitaranipuyodah prana rodho visasanam lalabhaksah sarameyadanam avicir ayahpanam iti. kinca ksarakardamo raksogana-bhojanah sulaproto dandasuko 'vata-nirodhanah paryavartanah sucimukham ity asta-vimsatir naraka vividha-yatanabhumayah.

 

Some authorities say that there is a total of twenty-one hellish planets, and some say twenty-eight. My dear King, I shall outline all of them according to their names, forms and symptoms. The names of the different hells are as follows: Tamisra , Andhatamisra, Raurava, Maharaurava, Kumbhipaka, Kalasutra, Asi-patravana, Sukaramukha, Andhakupa, Krmibhojana, Sandamsa, Taptasurmi, Vajrakantaka-salmali, Vaitarani, Puyoda, Pranarodha, Visasana, Lalabhaksa, Sarameyadana, Avici, Ayahpana, Ksarakardama, Raksogana-bhojana, Sulaprota, Dandasuka, Avata-nirodhana, Paryavartana and Sucimukha. All these planets are meant for punishing the living entities.

 


yamaraja punishes the sinful on the order of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 3.1.17)

 

5.26.6

yatra ha vava bhagavan pitr-rajo vaivasvatah sva-visayam prapitesu sva-purusairjantusu samparetesu yatha-karmavadyam dosam evanullanghita-bhagavac-chasanah sagano damam dharayati.

 

The King of the pitas is Yamaraja, the very powerful son of the sun-god. He resides in Pitrloka with his personal assistants and, while abiding by the rules and regulations set down by the Supreme Lord, has his agents, the Yamadutas, bring all the sinful men to him immediately upon their death. After bringing them within his jurisdiction, he properly judges them according to their specific sinful activities and sends them to one of the many hellish planets for suitable punishments.

 

objection: very well. but the statement from kausitaki upanisad remains. therefore it is to be concluded that after a sinful soul is punished in samayamana, he ascends to the candra-loka.

 

reply: this standpoint is false. chandogya upanisad (5.10.1, 3) states that those situated in knowledge follow the path of the devas (devayana), and those who perform pious deed follow the path of the pitas (pitryana). both paths include the moon. in this way 'all go to candraloka'—all those who are qualified either by karma or jnana.

(Vs. 3.1.18)

 

7.15.54

agnih suryo diva prahnah

suklo rakottaram sva-rat

visvo 'tha taijasah prajnas

turya atma samanvayat

 

On his path of ascent, the progressive living entity enters the different worlds of fire, the sun, the day, the end of the day, the bright fortnight, the full moon, and the passing of the sun in the north, along with their presiding demigods. When he enters Brahmaloka, he enjoys life for many millions of years, and finally his material designation comes to an end. He then comes to a subtle designation, from which he attains the causal designation, witnessing all previous states. Upon the annihilation of this causal state, he attains his pure state, in which he identifies with the Supersoul. In this way the living entity becomes transcendental.

 

7.15.55

deva-yanam idam prahur

bhutva bhutvanupurvasah

atma-yajy upasantatma-

hy atma-stho na nivartate

 

This gradual process of elevation for self-realization is meant for those who are truly aware of the Absolute Truth. After repeated birth on this path, which is known as deva-yana, one attains these consecutive stages. One who is completely free from all material desires, being situated in the self, need not traverse the path of repeated birth and death.

 

7.15.50-51

dravya-suksma-vipakas ca

dhumo ratrir apaksayah

ayanam daksinam somo

darsa osadhi-virudhah

 


annam reta iti ksmesa

pitr-yanam punar-bhavah

ekaikasyenanupurvam

bhutva bhutveha jayate

 

My dear King Yudhisthira, when oblations of ghee and food grains like barley and sesame are offered in sacrifice, they turn into celestial smoke, which carries one to successively higher planetary systems like the kingdoms of Dhuma, Ratri, Krsna paksa, Daksinam and ultimately the moon. Then, however, the performers of sacrifice descend again to earth to become herbs, creepers, vegetables and food grains. These are eaten by different living entities and turned to semen, which is injected into female bodies. Thus one takes birth again and again.

 

7.15.56

ya ete pitr-devanam

ayane veda-nirmite

sastrena caksusa veda

jana-stho 'pi na muhyati

 

Even though situated in a material body, one who is fully aware of the paths known as pitr-yana and deva-yana, and who thus opens his eyes in terms of Vedic knowledge, is never bewildered in this material world.

 

there are three destinations open to men: that of the devas, that of the pitas, and that of the lower creatures. the souls of human beings who cultivate neither knowledge nor pious deeds enter the third world. they have no need of the fivefold sacrifice for attaining a new human body, for human birth is not open to them.

(Vs. 3.1.19)

 

3.30.33, 34

kevalena hy adharmena

kutumba-bharanotsukah

yati jivo 'ndha-tamisram

caramam tamasah padam

 

Therefore a person who is very eager to maintain his family and kinsmen simply by black methods certainly goes to the darkest region of hell, which is known as Andha-tamisra.

 

adhastan nara-lokasya

yavatir yatanadayah

kramasah samanukramya

punar atravrajec chucih

 

Having gone through all the miserable, hellish conditions and having passed in a regular order through the lowest forms of animal life prior to human birth, and having thus been purged of his sins, one is reborn again as a human being on this earth.

 

the smrti-sastra tells of holy persons who attained human birth by extraordinary means (without the fivefold sacrifice). for instance, dhrstadyumna, son of draupada, was born from fire.

(Vs. 3.1.20)

 

9.22.3

drupadad draupadi tasya

dhrstadyumnadayah sutah

dhrstadyumnad dhrstaketur

bharmyah pancalaka ime

 

From Maharaja Drupada, Draupadi was born. Maharaja Drupada also had many sons, headed by Dhrstadyumna. From Dhrstadyumna came a son named Dhrstaketu. All these personalities are known as descendants of Bharmyasva or as the dynasty of Pancala.

 

the souls of the third world take their bodies in four ways as ordained by the laws of nature: from wombs, from exudation (perspiration), from eggs and from the earth. sacrifice is not required for them to get new bodies.

(Vs. 3.1.21-22)

5.18.32

jarayujam svedajam andajodbhidam

caracaram devarsi-pitr-bhutam aindriyam

dyauh kham ksitih saila-sarit-samudra-

dvipa-graharksety abhidheya ekah

 

My dear Lord, You manifest Your different energies in countless forms: as living entities born from wombs, from eggs and from perspiration; as plants and trees that grow out of the earth; as all living entities, both moving and standing, including the demigods, the learned sages and the pitas; as outer space, as the higher planetary system containing the heavenly planets, and as the planet earth with its hills, rivers, seas, oceans and islands. Indeed, all the stars and planets are simply manifestations of Your different energies, but originally You are one without a second. Therefore there is nothing beyond You. This entire cosmic manifestation is therefore not false but is simply a temporary manifestation of Your inconceivable energy .

 

 

Adhikarana 4: The Soul Does Not Become Ether, Etc.          

 

chandogya upanisad (5.10.5) describes the return of the soul from heaven thusly: 'he returns by this path: first he becomes ether; then he becomes air; then he becomes smoke; then he becomes mist; then he becomes cloud; then he becomes rain.'

 

this passage is describing the disembodied soul's contact with ether and the rest as he descends through space. it is not that the soul becomes these things.

(Vs. 3.1.23)

 

2.7.49

sa sreyasam api vibhur bhagavan yato 'sya

bhava-svabhava-vihitasya satah prasiddhih

dehe sva-dhatu-vigame 'nuvisiryamane

vyomeva tatra puruso na visiryate 'jah

 

The Personality of Godhead is the supreme master of everything auspicious because the results of whatever actions are performed by the living being, in either the material or spiritual existence, are awarded by the Lord. As such, He is the ultimate benefactor. Every individual living entity is unborn, and therefore even after the annihilation of the material elementary body, the living entity exists, exactly like the air within the body.

 

 


Adhikarana 5:

The Soul's Descent From Ether To Rain Is Quick.   

 

after he leaves heaven, the soul quickly descends through ether, air, smoke, mist, cloud and rain.

(Vs. 3.1.24)

 

11.10.26

tavat sa modate svarge

yavat punyam samapyate

ksina-punyah pataty arvag

anicchan kala-calitah

 

Until his pious credits are used up, the performer of scarifice enjoys life in the heavenly planets. When the pious results are exhausted, however, he falls down from the pleasure gardens of heaven, being moved against his desire by the force of time.

 

 

Adhikarana 6:

The Descending Souls Do Not Take Birth Among The Plants.                              

 

just as the soul does not become ether and the rest, he is not born as a plant when he at last reaches earth. rather, having fallen to earth in the rain, the soul comes in contact with the body of a plant. thus is is said he 'becomes' a plant (as he 'became' ether and the rest, by contact).

(Vs. 3.1.25)

 

7.15.50-51

dravya-suksma-vipakas ca

dhumo ratrir apaksayah

ayanam daksinam somo

darsa osadhi-virudhah

 

annam reta iti ksmesa

pitr-yanam punar-bhavah

ekaikasyenanupurvam

bhutva bhutveha jayate

 

My dear King Yudhisthira, when oblations of ghee and food grains like barley and sesame are offered in sacrifice, they turn into celestial smoke, which carries one to successively higher planetary systems like the kingdoms of Dhuma, Ratri, Krsna paksa, Daksinam and ultimately the moon. Then, however, the performers of sacrifice descend again to earth to become herbs, creepers, vegetables and food grains. These are eaten by different living entities and turned to semen, which is injected into female bodies. Thus one takes birth again and again.

 

it is incorrect to suppose that the living entity actually takes birth as a plant, because that type of birth is the result of sin. it is also not correct to think that the soul's impious birth as a plant after he falls from heaven is justified by his having risen to heaven by animal sacrifice, which is sinful because it violates ahimsa. there is no sin when the animals are sacrified properly. when they are improperly sacrificed, there is another kind of reaction.

(Vs. 3.1.26)

 

11.5.13

yad ghrana-bhakso vihitah surayas

tatha pasor alabhanam na himsa

evam vyavayah prajaya na ratya

imam visuddham na vidih sva-dharmam

 

According to the Vedic injunctions, when wine is offered in sacrificial ceremonies it is later to be consumed by smelling, and not by drinking. Similarly, the sacrifial offering of animals is permitted, but there is no provision for wide-scale animal slaughter. Religious sex life is also permitted, but only in marriage for begetting children, and not for sensuous exploitation of the body. Unfortunately, however, the less intelligent materialists cannot understand that their duties in life should be performed purely on the spiritual platform.

 

4.25.7, 8

narada uvaca

bho bhoh prajapate rajan

pasun pasya tvayadhvare

samjnapitan jiva-sanghan

nirghrnena sahasrasah

 

The great saint Narada said: O ruler of the citizens, my dear King, please see in the sky those animals which you have sacrificed without compassion and without mercy in the sacrificial arena.

 

ete tvam sampratiksante

smaranto vaisasam tava

samparetam ayah-kutais

chindanty utthita-manyavah

 

All these animals are awaiting your death so that they can avenge the injuries you have inflicted upon them. After you die, they will angrily pierce your body with iron horns.

 

in the same way, the soul comes in contact with a male who injects the soul within the womb of a female.

(Vs. 3.1.27)

 

3.31.2

sri-bhagavan uvaca

karmana daiva-netrena

jantur dehopapattaye

striyah pravista udaram

pumso retah-kanasrayah

 

The Personality of Godhead said: Under the supervision of the Supreme Lord and according to the result of his work, the living entity, the soul, is made to enter into the womb of a woman through the particle of male semen to assume a particular type of body.

 

the living entity receives a body from the womb of that female.

(Vs. 3.1.28)

 

3.31.2-4

kalalam tv eka-ratrena

panca-ratrena budbudam

dasahena tu karkandhuh

pesy andam va tatah param

 

On the first night, the sperm and ovum mix, and on the fifth night the mixture ferments into a bubble. On the tenth night it develops into a form like a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg, as the case may be.

 

ma-sena tu siro dvabhyam

bahv-anghry-ady-anga-vigrahah

nakha-lomasthi-carmani

linga-cchidrodbhavas tribhih

 

In the course of a month, a head is formed, and at the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as do the organ of generation and the ot her apertures in the body, namely the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus.

 

caturbhir dhatavah sapta

pancabhih ksut-trd-udbhavah

sadbhir jarayuna vitah

kuksau bhramyati daksine

 

Within four months from the date of conception, the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen, come into existence. At the end of five months, hunger and thirst make themselves felt, and at the end of six months, the fetus, enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen.

 

 

z

 


CHAPTER TEN              

[Vedanta-sutra Reference: Third Adhyaya, Pada Two]

                                  

• Contents of Chapter Ten •

 

 

1. Brahman creates dreams.

2. Not all dreams are illusions.

3. Brahman creates the waking state.

4. Brahman creates the state of deep sleep.

5. The same person returns to the body upon waking.

6. The condition of fainting.

7. Although one, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifest in many forms.

8. The form of Brahman.

9. The worshiped is different from the worshiper.

10. The individual spirit souls are not reflections of Brahman.

11. The 'neti-neti' text explained.

12. The form of the Supreme Lord.

13. Brahman can be seen.

14. The Supreme Lord's qualities are not different from His Own Self.

15. The bliss of the Supreme Lord is paramount.

16. Brahman is not nirvisesa (without particular features).

17. The Supreme Lord is the highest.

18. The Supreme Lord is all-pervading.

19. The Supreme Lord awards the fruits of action.

 

 

Adhikarana 1: Brahman Creates Dreams                

 

dreams are created by the supersoul to award the living entity with the results of insignificant karma.

(Vs. 3.2.1)

 

6.16.55

yena prasuptah purusah

svapam vedatmanas tada

sukham ca nirgunam brahma

tam atmanam avehi mam

 

Know Me to be the Supreme Brahman, the all-pervading Supersoul through whom the sleeping living entity can understand his dreaming condition and his happiness beyond the activities of the material senses. That is to say, I am the cause of the activities of the sleeping living being.

 

the supersoul causes objects of desire to appear in dreams as they do in other situations (e.g. the waking state).

(Vs. 3.2.2)

 

11.13.32

yo jagare bahir anuksana-dharmino 'rthan

bhunkte samasta-karanair hrdi tat-sadriksan

svapne susupta upasamharate sa ekah

smrty-anvayat tri-guna-vrtti-drg indriyesah

 

While awake the living entity enjoys with all of his senses the fleeting characteristics of the material body and mind; while dreaming he enjoys similar experiences with the mind; and in deep dreamless sleep all such experiences merge into ignorance. By remembering and contemplating the succession of wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep, the living entity can understand that he is one throughout the three stages of consciousness and is transcendental. Thus, he becomes the lord of the senses.

 

dreams are features of the supreme lord's maya.

(Vs. 3.2.3)

11.13.33

evam vimrsya gunato manasas try-avastha

man-mayaya mayi krta iti niscitarthah

sanchidya hardam anumana-sad-ukti-tiksna-

jnanasina bhajata makhila-samsayadhim

 

You should consider how, by the influence of My illusory energy, these three states of the mind, caused by the modes of nature, have been artificially imagined to exist in Me. Having definitely ascertained the truth of the soul, you should utilize the sharptened sword of knowledge, acquired by logical reflection and from the instructions of sages and Vedic literatures, to completely cut off the false ego, which is the breeding ground of all doubts. All of you should then worship Me, who am situated within the heart.

 

 

Adhikarana 2: Not All Dreams Are Illusions.            

 

some dreams are omens; sastra and experts so declare.

(Vs. 3.2.4)

 

10.42.26-27

kamsas tu dhanuso bhangam

raksinam sva-balasya ca

vadham nisamya govinda

rama-vikriditam param

 

dirgha-prajagaro bhito

durnimittani durmatih

bahuny acastobhayatha

mrtyor dautya-karani ca

 

Wicked King Kamsa, on the other hand, was terrified, having heard how Krsna and Balarama had broken the bow and killed his guards and soldiers, all simply as a game. He remained awake for a long time, and both while awake and while dreaming he saw many bad omens, messengers of death.

 

objection: when one awakes from dreaming, he knows that his dreams were unreal. therefore no value should be imparted to dreams.

 

reply: the manifestation and the withdrawal of the dream world within the consciousness of the living entity is effected by the lord. in the same way, bondage and liberation proceed from him also.

(Vs. 3.2.5)

 

3.7.10-12

yad arthena vinamusya

pumsa atma-viparyayah

pratiyata upadrastuh

sva-siras chedanadikah

 

The living entity is in distress regarding his self-identity. He has no factual background, like a man who dreams that he sees his head cut off.

 

yatha jale candramasah

kampadis tat-krto gunah

drsyate 'sann api drastur

atmano 'natmano gunah

 

As the moon reflected on water appears to the seer to tremble due to being associated with the quality of the water, so the self associated with matter appears to be qualified as matter.

 

sa vai nivrtti-dhamaena

vasudevanukampaya

bhagavad-bhakti-yogena

tirodhatte sanair iha

 

But that misconception of self-identity can be diminished gradually by the mercy of the Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, through the process of devotional service to the Lord in the mode of detachment.

 

 

Adhikarana 3: Brahman Creates The Waking State.           

 

the state in which consciousness is focused on the physical body (the waking state) is created by the supreme lord.

(Vs. 3.2.6)

 

6.16.53-54

yatha susuptah puruso

visvam pasyati catmani

atmanam eka-desa-stham

manyate svapna utthitah

 

evam jagaranadini

jiva-sthanani catmanah

maya-matrani vijnaya

tad-drastaram param smaret

 

When a person is in deep sleep, he dreams and sees in himself many other objects, such as great mountains and rivers or perhaps even the entire universe, although they are far away. Sometimes when one awakens from a dream he sees that he is in a human form, lying in his bed in one place. Then he sees himself, in terms of various conditions, as belonging to a particular nationality, family and so on. All the conditions of deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness are but energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should always remember the original creator of these conditions, the Supreme Lord, who is unaffected by them.

 

 


Adhikarana 4: Brahman Creates The State Of Deep Sleep.       

 

different statements in the upanisads indicate that deep sleep is the result of the soul entering 1) the nadis (subtle channels that pervade the body from the center of the heart), 2) the pericardium, or 3) the supersoul. the resolution is that the soul sleeps within the bed of the supersoul, after having entered the palace (the  pericardium) through the door of the nadis.

(Vs. 3.2.7)

 

11.3.35

sri-pippalayana uvaca

sthity-udbhava-pralaya-hetur ahetur asya

yat svapna-jagara- susuptisu sad bahis ca

dehendriyasu-hrdayani caranti yena

sanjivitani tad avehi param narendra

 

Sri Pippalayana said: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of this universe, yet He has no prior cause. He pervades the various states of wakefulness, dreaming and unconscious deep sleep and also exists beyond them. By entering the body of every living being as the Supersoul, He enlivens the body, senses, life airs and mental activities, and thus all the subtle and gross organs of the body begin their functions. My dear King, know that Personality of Godhead to be the Supreme.

 

1.10.21

sa vai kilayam purusah puratano

ya eka asid avisesa atmani

agre gunebhyo jagad-atmanisvare

nimilitatman nisi supta-saktisu

 

They said: Here He is, the original Personality of Godhead as we definitely remember Him. He alone existed before the manifested creation of the modes of nature, and in Him only, because He is the Supreme Lord, all living beings merge, as if sleeping at night, their energy suspended.

 

because the supersoul is the resting place of the soul in deep sleep, it is the supersoul alone who awakens the sleeping soul.

(Vs. 3.2.8)

 

3.26.71

yatha prasuptam purusam

pranendriya-mano-dhiyah

prabhavanti vina yena

notthapayitum ojasa

 

When a man is sleeping, all his material assets—namely the vital energy, the senses for recording knowledge, the senses for working, the mind and the intelligence—cannot arouse him. He can be aroused only when the Supersoul helps him.

 

 


Adhikarana 5:

The Same Person Returns To The Body Upon Waking.   

 

when the living entity awakes from deep sleep, he is the same person. this is certain because of four proofs: 1) the living entity continues his unfinished karma, 2) he retains memory of his identity, 3) the scriptures so describe him as returning to the same body, and 4) he is bound by the scriptural injunctions (i.e. it is enjoined that the jiva cannot attain liberation while in the state of deep sleep, so he is obliged by sastra to return to the body from that state).

(Vs. 3.2.9)

 

11.3.39

andesu pesis tarusv aviniscitesu

prano hi jivam upadhavati tatra tatra

sanne yad indriya-gane 'hami ca prasupte

kuta-stha asayam rte tad-anusmrtir nah

 

The spirit soul is born in many different species of life within the material world. Some species are born from eggs, others from embryos, others from the seeds of plants and trees, and others from perspiration. But in all species of life the prana, or vital air, remians unchanging and follows the spirit soul from one body to another. Similarly, the spirit soul is eternally the same despite its material condition of life. We have practical experience of this. When we are absorbed in deep sleep without dreaming, the material senses become inactive, and even the mind and false ego are merged into a dormant condition. But although the senses, mind and false ego are inactive, one remembers upon waking that he, the soul, was peacefully sleeping.

 

11.13.27, 28

jagrat svapnah susuptam ca

gunato buddhi-vrttayah

tasam vilaksano jivah

saksitvena viniscitah

 

Waking, sleeping and deep sleep are the three functions of the intelligence and are caused by the modes of material nature. The living entity within the body is ascertained to possess characteristics different from these three states and thus remains as a witness to them.

 

yarhi samsrti-bandho 'yam

atmano guna-vrtti-dah

mayi turye sthito jahyat

tyagas tad guna-cetasam

 

The spirit soul is trapped in the bondage of material intelligence, which awards him constant engagement in the illusory modes of nature. But I am the fourth stage of consciousness, beyond wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep. Becoming situated in Me, the soul should give up the bondage of material consciousness. At that time, the living entity will automatically renounce the material sense objects and the material mind.

 

 

Adhikarana 6: The Condition Of Fainting.              

 

the state of swoon (mugdha) is midway between deep sleep and wakefulness. that is to say, the soul partially attains rest in the supersoul.

(3.2.10)

 


7.13.5

supti-prabodhayoh sandhav

atmano gatim atma-drk

pasyan bandham ca moksam ca

maya-matram na vastutah

 

During unconsciousness and consciousness, and between the two, he should try to understand the self and be fully situated in the self. In this way, he should realize that the conditional and liberated stages of life are only illusory and not actually factual. With such a higher understanding, he should see only the Absolute Truth pervading everything.

 

 

Adhikarana 7:

Although One, The Supreme Personality Of Godhead

Is Manifest In Many Forms.                      

 

the supreme lord does not become two by manifesting his form in two places at once, for he is everywhere.

(Vs. 3.2.11)

 

3.32.33

yathendriyaih prthag-dvarair

artho bahu-gunasrayah

eko naneyate tadvad

bhagavan sastra-vartmabhih

 

A single object is appreciated differently by different senses due to its having different qualities. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is one, but according to different scriptural injunctions He appears to be different.

 

10.33.19

krtva tavantam atmanam

yavatir gopa-yositah

reme sa bhagavams tabhir

atmaramo 'pi lilaya

 

Expanding Himself as many times as therre were cowherd women to associate with, the Supreme Lord, though self-satisfied, playfully enjoyed their company.

 

the supreme lord expands himself limitlessly, but with every expansion, he remains one.

(Vs. 3.2.12)

 

10.69.2

citram bataitad ekena

vapusa yugapat prthak

grhesu dvy-asta-sahasram

striya eka udavahat

 

He thought, "It is quite amazing that in a single body Lord Krsna simultaneously married sixteen thousand women, each in a separate palace."

 

that the lord is always one person who appears in many forms is explained by various authorities who use various examples, like that of an actor.

(Vs. 3.2.13)

 

8.18.12

yat tad vapur bhati vibhu-sanayudhair

avyakta-cid-vyaktam adharayad dharih

babhuva tenaiva sa vamano vatuh

sampasyator divya-gatir yatha natah

 

The Lord appeared in His original form, with ornaments and weapons in His hands. Although this ever-existing form is not visible in the material world, He nonetheless appeared in this form. Then, in the presence of His father and mother, He assumed the form of Vamana, a brahmana-dwarf, a brahmacari, just like a theatrical actor.

 

 

Adhikarana 8: The Form Of Brahman.                 

 

the supreme lord does not possess a form, for he and his form are not different. his form is all-knowing, all-pervading pure consciousness.

(Vs. 3.2.15)

 

10.27.11

svacchandopatta-dehaya

visuddha-jnana-murtaye

sarvasmai sarva-bijaya

sarva-bhutatmane namah

 

Unto Him who assumes transcendental bodies according to the desires of His devotees, unto Him whose form is itself pure consciousness, unto Him who is everything and who is the Soul of all creatures, I offer my obeisances.

 

the form of the supreme lord is not meaningless, just as the sun's form of light is not meaningless. both are objects of meditation. as a wife meditates upon the form of her husband while he is away from home, so also meditate the devotees upon the form of the supreme lord.

(Vs. 3.2.15)

 

10.2.37

srnvan grnan samsmarayams ca cintayan

namani rupani ca mangalani te

kriyasu yas tvac-caranaravindayor

avista-ceta na bhavaya kalpate

 

Even while engaged in various activities, devotees whose minds are completely absorbed at Your lotus feet, and who constantly hear, chant, contemplate and cause others to remember Your transcendental names and forms, are always on the transcendental platform, and thus they can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

10.47.34, 35

yat tv aham bhavatinam vai

dure varte priyo drsam

manasah sannikarsartham

mad-anudhyana-kamyaya

 

But the actual reason why I, the beloved object of your sight, have stayed far away from you is that I wanted to intensify your meditation upon Me and thus draw your minds closer to Me.

 


yatha dura-care presthe

mana avisya vartate

strinam ca na tatha cetah

sannikrste 'ksi-gocare

 

When her lover is far away, a woman thinks of him more than when he is present before her.

 

4.8.52

evam bhagavato rupam

subhadram dhyayato manah

nirvrtya paraya turnam

sampannam na nivartate

 

One who meditates in this way, concentrating his mind upon the always auspicious form of the Lord, is very soon freed from all material contamination, and he does not come down from meditation upon the Lord.

 

but the supreme lord's form is not an imaginary convenience meant only for concentrating the mind. the upanisads (with words like satya, jnana, ananta and ananda) point to his transcendental form as the highest reality. his form is not different from his transcendental, blissful self.

(Vs. 3.2.16)

 

10.13.54

satya jnananantananda-

matraika-rasa-murtayah

asprsta-bhuri-mahatmya

api hy upanisad-drsam

 

The visnu-murtis all had eternal, unlimited forms, full of knowledge and bliss and existing beyond the influence of time. Their great glory was not even to be touched by the jnanis engaged in studying the Upanisads.

 

10.3.13

sri-vasudeva uvaca

vidito 'si bhavan saksat

purusah prakrteh parah

kevalanu bhavananda-

svarupah sarva-buddhi-drk

 

Vasudeva said: My Lord, You are the Supreme Person, beyond material existence, and You are the Supersoul. Your form can be perceived by transcendental knowledge, by which You can be understood as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I now understand Your position perfectly.

 

the supreme lord's self is not different from his form (therefore if one cannot understand the lord's form, he cannot understand the lord's transcendental, blissful self).

(Vs. 3.2.17)

 

10.14.1, 2

sri-brahmovaca

naumidya te 'bhra-vapuse tadid-ambaraya

gunjavatamsa-paripiccha-lasan-mukhaya

vanya-sraje kavala-vetra-visana-venu-

laksma-sriye mrdu-pade pasupangajaya

 

Lord Brahma said: My dear Lord, You are the only worshipable Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore I offer You my humble obeisances and prayers just to please You. O son of the king of the cowherds, Your transcendental body is dark blue like a new cloud, Your garment is brilliant like lightning, and the beauty of Your face is enhanced by Your gunja earrings and the peacock feather on Your head. Wearing garlands of various forest flowers and leaves, and equipped with a herding stick, a buffalo horn and a flute, You stand beautifully with a morsel of food in Your hand.

 

asyapi deva vapuso mad-anugrahasya

sveccha-mayasya na tu bhuta-mayayasya ko 'pi

nese mahi tv avasitum manasantarena

saksast tavaiva kim utatma-sukhanubhuteh

 

My dear Lord, neither I nor anyone else can estimate the potency of this transcendental body of Yours, which has shown such mercy to me and which appears just to fulfill the desires of Your pure devotees. Although my mind is completely withdrawn from material affairs, I cannot understand Your personal form. How, then, could I possibly understand the happiness You experience within Yourself?

 

 

Adhikarana 9:

The Worshiped Is Different From The Worshiper.    

 

it is established that the supreme lord is a person whose form is blissful spirit. but what about the individual